Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United Kingdom, United States, and Australia. Rooted in garage rock and other forms of what is now known as protopunk music, punk rock bands eschewed perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. Punk bands created fast, hard-edged music, typically with short songs, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; many bands self-produced recordings and distributed them through informal channels.

The term “punk” was first used in relation to rock music by some American critics in the early 1970s, to describe garage bands and their devotees. By late 1976, bands such as the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned in London and Television and the Ramones in New York City were recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement. The following year saw punk rock spreading around the world, and it became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. For the most part, punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream. An associated punk subculture emerged, expressing youthful rebellion and characterized by distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.

By the beginning of the 1980s, faster, more aggressive styles such as hardcore and Oi! had become the predominant mode of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk also pursued a broad range of other variations, giving rise to post-punk and the alternative rock movement. At the end of the 20th century, punk rock had been adopted by the mainstream, as bands such as Green Day, The Offspring and Blink-182 brought the genre widespread popularity.



The Ramones‘ 1976 debut album laid down the musical “blueprint for punk,”[1] while its cover image had a similarly formative influence on punk visual style.[2]

The first wave of punk rock aimed to be aggressively modern, distancing itself from the bombast and sentimentality of early 1970s rock.[3] According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, “In its initial form, a lot of [1960s] stuff was innovative and exciting. Unfortunately, what happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away. Soon you had endless solos that went nowhere. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock ‘n’ roll.”[4] John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling “punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that [acts] like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans, rock and roll meant this wild and rebellious music.”[5] In critic Robert Christgau‘s description, “It was also a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth.”[6]

Technical accessibility and a DIY spirit are prized in punk rock. In the early days this ethic with those who regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.[7] Musical virtuosity was often looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was “rock and roll by people who didn’t have very much skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music”.[5] In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned “This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band”.[8] The title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, “Loud Fast Rules!” inscribed a catchphrase for punk’s basic musical approach.[9]

Some of British punk rock’s leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated predecessors: “No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977,” declared The Clash song “1977”.[10] The previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural “Year Zero”.[11] Even as nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan “No Future”;[3] in the later words of one observer, amid the unemployment and social unrest in 1977, “punk’s nihilistic swagger was the most thrilling thing in England.”[12] While “self-imposed alienation” was common among “drunk punks” and “gutter punks,” there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the “radical leftist utopianism”[13] of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer‘s outlook, “Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We’re meant to be able to do what we want to do.”[14]

The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term “poseur” is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that “attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult”; as the punk scene matured, he observes, eventually “everyone got called a poseur”.[15]

Musical and lyrical elements

Johnny Rotten and Steve Jones of the Sex Pistols

Punk rock bands often emulate the bare musical structures and arrangements of late 1960s garage rock.[16] Typical punk rock instrumentation includes one or two electric guitars, an electric bass, and a drum kit, along with vocals. Songs tend to be shorter than those of other popular genres. Most early punk rock songs retained a traditional rock ‘n’ roll verse-chorus form and 4/4 time signature. However, later bands have often broken from this format. In critic Steven Blush’s description, “The Sex Pistols were still rock’n’roll…like the craziest version of Chuck Berry. Hardcore was a radical departure from that. It wasn’t verse-chorus rock. It dispelled any notion of what songwriting is supposed to be. It’s its own form.”[17]

Punk rock vocals sometimes sound nasal,[18] and lyrics are often shouted instead of sung in a conventional sense, particularly in hardcore styles.[19] Shifts in pitch, volume, or intonational style are relatively infrequent.[20] Complicated guitar solos are considered self-indulgent and unnecessary, although basic guitar breaks are common.[21] Guitar parts tend to include highly distorted power chords or barre chords, creating a characteristic sound described by Christgau as a “buzzsaw drone”.[22] Some punk rock bands take a surf rock approach with a lighter, twangier guitar tone. Others, such as Robert Quine, lead guitarist of The Voidoids, have employed a wild, “gonzo” attack, a style that stretches back through The Velvet Underground to the 1950s recordings of Ike Turner.[23] Bass guitar lines are often uncomplicated; the quintessential approach is a relentless, repetitive “forced rhythm,”[24] although some punk rock bass players—such as Mike Watt of The Minutemen and Firehose—emphasize more technical bass lines. Bassists often use a pick due to the rapid succession of notes, which makes fingerpicking impractical. Drums typically sound heavy and dry, and often have a minimal set-up. Compared to other forms of rock, syncopation is much less the rule.[25] Hardcore drumming tends to be especially fast.[19] Production tends to be minimalistic, with tracks sometimes laid down on home tape recorders[26] or simple four-track portastudios. The typical objective is to have the recording sound unmanipulated and “real,” reflecting the commitment and “authenticity” of a live performance.[27]

The Clash, performing in 1980

Punk rock lyrics are typically frank and confrontational; compared to the lyrics of other popular music genres, they frequently comment on social and political issues.[28] Trend-setting songs such as The Clash’s “Career Opportunities” and Chelsea‘s “Right to Work” deal with unemployment and the grim realities of urban life.[29] Especially in early British punk, a central goal was to outrage and shock the mainstream.[30] The Sex Pistols’ “Anarchy in the U.K.” and “God Save the Queen” openly disparaged the British political system and social mores. Anti-sentimental depictions of relationships and sex are common, as in “Love Comes in Spurts,” written by Richard Hell and recorded by him with The Voidoids. Anomie, variously expressed in the poetic terms of Hell’s “Blank Generation” and the bluntness of the Ramones’ “Now I Wanna Sniff Some Glue,” is a common theme. Identifying punk with such topics aligns with the view expressed by V. Vale, founder of San Francisco fanzine Search and Destroy: “Punk was a total cultural revolt. It was a hardcore confrontation with the black side of history and culture, right-wing imagery, sexual taboos, a delving into it that had never been done before by any generation in such a thorough way”.[31]

Visual and other elements

The classic punk rock look among male American musicians harkens back to the T-shirt, motorcycle jacket, and jeans ensemble favored by American greasers of the 1950s associated with the rockabilly scene and by British rockers of the 1960s. The cover of the Ramones’ 1976 debut album, featuring a shot of the band by Punk photographer Roberta Bayley, set forth the basic elements of a style that was soon widely emulated by rock musicians both punk and nonpunk.[2] Richard Hell’s more androgynous, ragamuffin look—and reputed invention of the safety-pin aesthetic—was a major influence on Sex Pistols impresario Malcolm McLaren and, in turn, British punk style.[32][33] (John Morton of Cleveland’s Electric Eels may have been the first rock musician to wear a safety-pin-covered jacket.)[34] McLaren’s partner, fashion designer Vivienne Westwood, credits Johnny Rotten as the first British punk to rip his shirt, and Sex Pistols bassist Sid Vicious as the first to use safety pins.[35] Early female punk musicians displayed styles ranging from Siouxsie Sioux‘s bondage gear to Patti Smith’s “straight-from-the-gutter androgyny”.[36] The former proved much more influential on female fan styles.[37] Over time, tattoos, piercings, and metal-studded and -spiked accessories became increasingly common elements of punk fashion among both musicians and fans, a “style of adornment calculated to disturb and outrage”.[38] The typical male punk haircut was originally short and choppy; the Mohawk later emerged as a characteristic style.[39]

British punks, circa 1986

The characteristic stage performance style of male punk musicians does not deviate significantly from the macho postures classically associated with rock music.[40] Female punk musicians broke more clearly from earlier styles. Scholar John Strohm suggests that they did so by creating personas of a type conventionally seen as masculine: “They adopted a tough, unladylike pose that borrowed more from the macho swagger of sixties garage bands than from the calculated bad-girl image of bands like The Runaways.”[36] Scholar Dave Laing describes how bassist Gaye Advert adopted fashion elements associated with male musicians only to generate a stage persona readily consumed as “sexy”.[41] Laing focuses on more innovative and challenging performance styles, seen in the various erotically destabilizing approaches of Siouxsie Sioux, The SlitsAri Up, and X-Ray SpexPoly Styrene.[42]

The lack of emphatic syncopation led punk dance to “deviant” forms. The characteristic style was originally the pogo.[43] Sid Vicious, before he became the Sex Pistols’ bassist, is credited with initiating the pogo in Britain as an attendee at one of their concerts.[44] Moshing is typical at hardcore shows. The lack of conventional dance rhythms was a central factor in limiting punk’s mainstream commercial impact.[45]

Breaking down the distance between performer and audience is central to the punk ethic.[46] Fan participation at concerts is thus important; during the movement’s first heyday, it was often provoked in an adversarial manner—apparently perverse, but appropriately “punk”. First-wave British punk bands such as the Sex Pistols and The Damned insulted and otherwise goaded the audience into intense reactions. Laing has identified three primary forms of audience physical response to goading: can throwing, stage invasion, and spitting or “gobbing”.[47] In the hardcore realm, stage invasion is often a prelude to stage diving. In addition to the numerous fans who have started or joined punk bands, audience members also become important participants via the scene’s many amateur periodicals—in England, according to Laing, punk “was the first musical genre to spawn fanzines in any significant numbers”.[48]


Garage rock and mod

For more details on this topic, see Garage rock and Mod (subculture).

In the early and mid-1960s, garage rock bands that came to be recognized as punk rock’s progenitors began springing up around North America. The Kingsmen, from Portland, Oregon, had a hit with their 1963 cover of “Louie, Louie,” cited as “punk rock’s defining ur-text.”[49] The minimalist sound of many garage rock bands was influenced by the harder-edged wing of the British Invasion. The Kinks‘ hit singles of 1964, “You Really Got Me” and “All Day and All of the Night,” have been described as “predecessors of the whole three-chord genre—the Ramones’ 1978 ‘I Don’t Want You,’ for instance, was pure Kinks-by-proxy”.[50] In 1965, The Who progressed from their debut single, “I Can’t Explain,” a virtual Kinks clone, to “My Generation“. Though it had little impact on the American charts, The Who’s mod anthem presaged a more cerebral mix of musical ferocity and rebellious posture that characterized much early British punk rock: John Reed describes The Clash’s emergence as a “tight ball of energy with both an image and rhetoric reminiscent of a young Pete Townshend—speed obsession, pop-art clothing, art school ambition”.[51] The Who and fellow mods The Small Faces were among the few rock elders acknowledged by the Sex Pistols.[52] By 1966, mod was already in decline. U.S. garage rock began to lose steam within a couple of years, but the raw sound and outsider attitude of “garage psych” bands like The Seeds presaged the style of bands that would become known as the archetypal figures of protopunk.[53]


For more details on this topic, see Protopunk.

Debut albums by two Michigan-based bands that appeared in 1969 are regarded as the central protopunk records. In January, Detroit’s MC5 released Kick Out the Jams. “Musically the group is intentionally crude and aggressively raw,” wrote critic Lester Bangs in Rolling Stone:

Most of the songs are barely distinguishable from each other in their primitive two-chord structures. You’ve heard all this before from such notables as the Seeds, Blue Cheer, Question Mark and the Mysterians, and the Kingsmen. The difference here … is in the hype, the thick overlay of teenage-revolution and total-energy-thing which conceals these scrapyard vistas of clichés and ugly noise. … “I Want You Right Now” sounds exactly (down to the lyrics) like a song called “I Want You” by the Troggs, a British group who came on with a similar sex-and-raw-sound image a couple of years ago (remember “Wild Thing“?)[54]

Iggy Pop, the “godfather of punk”

That August, The Stooges, from Ann Arbor, premiered with a self-titled album. According to critic Greil Marcus, the band, led by singer Iggy Pop, created “the sound of Chuck Berry‘s Airmobile—after thieves stripped it for parts”.[55] The album was produced by John Cale, a former member of New York’s experimental rock group The Velvet Underground. Having earned a “reputation as the first underground rock band,” The Velvet Underground inspired, directly or indirectly, many of those involved in the creation of punk rock.[56]

In the early 1970s, the New York Dolls updated the original wildness of 1950s rock ‘n’ roll in a fashion that later became known as glam punk.[57] The New York duo Suicide played spare, experimental music with a confrontational stage act inspired by that of The Stooges. At the Coventry club in the New York City borough of Queens, The Dictators used rock as a vehicle for wise-ass attitude and humor.[58] In Boston, The Modern Lovers, led by Velvet Underground devotee Jonathan Richman, gained attention with a minimalistic style. In 1974, an updated garage rock scene began to coalesce around the newly opened Rathskeller club in Kenmore Square. Among the leading acts were the Real Kids, founded by former Modern Lover John Felice; Willie Alexander and the Boom Boom Band, whose frontman had been a member of the Velvet Underground for a few months in 1971; and Mickey Clean and the Mezz.[59] In 1974, as well, the Detroit band Death—made up of three African-American brothers—recorded “scorching blasts of feral ur-punk,” but couldn’t arrange a release deal.[60] In Ohio, a small but influential underground rock scene emerged, led by Devo in Akron and Kent and by Cleveland’s Electric Eels, Mirrors and Rocket from the Tombs. In 1975, Rocket from the Tombs split into Pere Ubu and Frankenstein. The Electric Eels and Mirrors both broke up, and The Styrenes emerged from the fallout.[61]

Britain’s Deviants, in the late 1960s, played in a range of psychedelic styles with a satiric, anarchic edge and a penchant for situationist-style spectacle presaging the Sex Pistols by almost a decade.[62] In 1970, the act evolved into the Pink Fairies, which carried on in a similar vein.[63] With his Ziggy Stardust persona, David Bowie made artifice and exaggeration central—elements, again, that were picked up by the Sex Pistols and certain other punk acts.[64] The Doctors of Madness built on Bowie’s presentation concepts, while moving musically in the direction that would become identified with punk. Bands in London’s pub rock scene stripped the music back to its basics, playing hard, R&B-influenced rock ‘n’ roll. By 1974, the scene’s top act, Dr. Feelgood, was paving the way for others such as The Stranglers and Cock Sparrer that would play a role in the punk explosion. Among the pub rock bands that formed that year was The 101’ers, whose lead singer would soon adopt the name Joe Strummer.[65]

Bands anticipating the forthcoming movement were appearing as far afield as Düsseldorf, West Germany, where “punk before punk” band NEU! formed in 1971, building on the Krautrock tradition of groups such as Can.[66] In Japan, the anti-establishment Zunō Keisatsu (Brain Police) mixed garage psych and folk. The combo regularly faced censorship challenges, their live act at least once including onstage masturbation.[67] A new generation of Australian garage rock bands, inspired mainly by The Stooges and MC5, was coming even closer to the sound that would soon be called “punk”: In Brisbane, The Saints also recalled the raw live sound of the British Pretty Things, who had made a notorious tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1965.[68]


Between the late 16th and the 18th centuries, punk was a common, coarse synonym for prostitute; William Shakespeare used it with that meaning in The Merry Wives of Windsor (1602) and Measure for Measure (1623).[69] The term eventually came to describe “a young male hustler, a gangster, a hoodlum, or a ruffian”.[70] As Legs McNeil explains, “On TV, if you watched cop shows, Kojak, Baretta, when the cops finally catch the mass murderer, they’d say, ‘you dirty Punk.’ It was what your teachers would call you. It meant that you were the lowest.”[71] The first known use of the phrase punk rock appeared in the Chicago Tribune on March 22, 1970, attributed to Ed Sanders, cofounder of New York’s anarcho-prankster band The Fugs. Sanders was quoted describing a solo album of his as “punk rock—redneck sentimentality”.[72] In the December 1970 issue of Creem, Lester Bangs, mocking more mainstream rock musicians, ironically referred to Iggy Pop as “that Stooge punk”.[73] Suicide’s Alan Vega credits this usage with inspiring his duo to bill its gigs as a “punk mass” for the next couple of years.[74]

Patti Smith, performing in 1976

Dave Marsh was the first music critic to employ the term punk rock: In the May 1971 issue of Creem, he described ? and the Mysterians, one of the most popular 1960s garage rock acts, as giving a “landmark exposition of punk rock”.[75] Later in 1971, in his fanzine Who Put the Bomp, Greg Shaw wrote about “what I have chosen to call ‘punk rock’ bands—white teenage hard rock of ’64-66 (Standells, Kingsmen, Shadows of Knight, etc.)”.[76] Robert Christgau writing for the Village Voice in October, 1971 refers to “mid-60’s punk” as a historical period of rock-and-roll.[77] Lenny Kaye used the term “classic garage-punk,” in reference to a song recorded in 1966 by The Shadows of Knight, in the liner notes of the anthology album Nuggets, released in 1972.[78] In June 1972, the fanzine Flash included a “Punk Top Ten” of 1960s albums.[79] By that December, the term was in circulation to the extent that The New Yorker‘s Ellen Willis, contrasting her own tastes with those of Flash and fellow critic Nick Tosches, wrote, “Punk-rock has become the favored term of endearment.”[80] In February 1973, Terry Atkinson of the Los Angeles Times, reviewing the debut album by a hard rock band, Aerosmith, declared that it “achieves all that punk-rock bands strive for but most miss.”[81] Three months later, Billy Altman launched the short-lived punk magazine.[82]

In May 1974, Los Angeles Times critic Robert Hilburn reviewed the second New York Dolls album, Too Much Too Soon. “I told ya the New York Dolls were the real thing,” he wrote, describing the album as “perhaps the best example of raw, thumb-your-nose-at-the-world, punk rock since the Rolling StonesExile on Main Street.”[83] Bassist Jeff Jensen of Boston’s Real Kids reports of a show that year, “A reviewer for one of the free entertainment magazines of the time caught the act and gave us a great review, calling us a ‘punk band.’ … [W]e all sort of looked at each other and said, ‘What’s punk?'”[84]

By 1975, punk was being used to describe acts as diverse as the Patti Smith Group, the Bay City Rollers, and Bruce Springsteen.[85] As the scene at New York’s CBGB club attracted notice, a name was sought for the developing sound. Club owner Hilly Kristal called the movement “street rock”; John Holmstrom credits Aquarian magazine with using punk “to describe what was going on at CBGBs”.[86] Holmstrom, McNeil, and Ged Dunn’s magazine Punk, which debuted at the end of 1975, was crucial in codifying the term.[87] “It was pretty obvious that the word was getting very popular”, Holmstrom later remarked. “We figured we’d take the name before anyone else claimed it. We wanted to get rid of the bullshit, strip it down to rock ‘n’ roll. We wanted the fun and liveliness back.”[85]

Early history

North America

New York City

The original anthem of the punk scene, performed live by Television in 1974 or 1975, with Richard Hell on lead vocals. The verse, described by Gary Valentine as defying melody, yields to the chorus, “set to a descending pattern reminiscent of Peggy Lee‘s “Fever“.[88] Tom Verlaine‘s virtuosic guitar style would lead the band away from what became the typical punk approach.[89]

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The origins of New York’s punk rock scene can be traced back to such sources as late 1960s trash culture and an early 1970s underground rock movement centered on the Mercer Arts Center in Greenwich Village, where the New York Dolls performed.[90] In early 1974, a new scene began to develop around the CBGB club, also in lower Manhattan. At its core was Television, described by critic John Walker as “the ultimate garage band with pretensions”.[91] Their influences ranged from the Velvet Underground to the staccato guitar work of Dr. Feelgood‘s Wilko Johnson.[92] The band’s bassist/singer, Richard Hell, created a look with cropped, ragged hair, ripped T-shirts, and black leather jackets credited as the basis for punk rock visual style.[93] In April 1974, Patti Smith, a member of the Mercer Arts Center crowd and a friend of Hell’s, came to CBGB for the first time to see the band perform.[94] A veteran of independent theater and performance poetry, Smith was developing an intellectual, feminist take on rock ‘n’ roll. On June 5, she recorded the single “Hey Joe“/”Piss Factory“, featuring Television guitarist Tom Verlaine; released on her own Mer Records label, it heralded the scene’s do it yourself (DIY) ethic and has often been cited as the first punk rock record.[95] By August, Smith and Television were gigging together at another downtown New York club, Max’s Kansas City.[93]

Facade of legendary music club CBGB, New York

Out in Forest Hills, Queens, several miles from lower Manhattan, the members of a newly formed band adopted a common surname. Drawing on sources ranging from the Stooges to The Beatles and The Beach Boys to Herman’s Hermits and 1960s girl groups, the Ramones condensed rock ‘n’ roll to its primal level: “‘1-2-3-4!’ bass-player Dee Dee Ramone shouted at the start of every song, as if the group could barely master the rudiments of rhythm.”[96] The band played its first gig at CBGB on August 16, 1974, on the same bill as another new act, Angel and the Snake, soon to be renamed Blondie.[97] By the end of the year, the Ramones had performed seventy-four shows, each about seventeen minutes long.[98] “When I first saw the Ramones”, critic Mary Harron later remembered, “I couldn’t believe people were doing this. The dumb brattiness.”[99] The Dictators, with a similar “playing dumb” concept, were recording their debut album. The Dictators’ Go Girl Crazy! came out in March 1975, mixing absurdist originals such as “Master Race Rock” and loud, straight-faced covers of cheese pop like Sonny & Cher‘s “I Got You Babe“.[100]

That spring, Smith and Television shared a two-month-long weekend residency at CBGB that significantly raised the club’s profile.[101] The Television sets included Richard Hell’s “Blank Generation”, which became the scene’s emblematic anthem.[102] Soon after, Hell left Television and founded a band featuring a more stripped-down sound, The Heartbreakers, with former New York Dolls Johnny Thunders and Jerry Nolan. The pairing of Hell and Thunders, in one critical assessment, “inject[ed] a poetic intelligence into mindless self-destruction”.[32] A July festival at CBGB featuring over thirty new groups brought the scene its first substantial media coverage.[103] In August, Television—with Fred Smith, former Blondie bassist, replacing Hell—recorded a single, “Little Johnny Jewel”, for the tiny Ork label. In the words of John Walker, the record was “a turning point for the whole New York scene” if not quite for the punk rock sound itself—Hell’s departure had left the band “significantly reduced in fringe aggression”.[91]

The chorus of the Ramones‘ first single “is a primer on the punk take on rock rhythm…everyone pumps out the rock rhythmic layer—on a drum, on a single note, on a single chord”, according to scholar Michael Campbell. “This is as pure, and as energetic, as rock rhythm gets.”[104]

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Other bands were becoming regulars at CBGB, such as Mink DeVille and Talking Heads, which moved down from Rhode Island. More closely associated with Max’s Kansas City were Suicide and the band led by drag queen Wayne County, another Mercer Arts Center alumna. The first album to come out of this downtown scene was released in November 1975: Smith’s debut, Horses, produced by John Cale for the major Arista label.[105] The inaugural issue of Punk appeared in December.[106] The new magazine tied together earlier artists such as Velvet Underground lead singer Lou Reed, the Stooges, and the New York Dolls with the editors’ favorite band, The Dictators, and the array of new acts centered around CBGB and Max’s.[107] That winter, Pere Ubu came in from Cleveland and played at both spots.[108]

Early in 1976, Hell left The Heartbreakers; he soon formed a new group that would become known as The Voidoids, “one of the most harshly uncompromising bands” on the scene.[109] That April, the Ramones’ debut album was released by Sire Records; the first single was “Blitzkrieg Bop“, opening with the rally cry “Hey! Ho! Let’s go!” According to a later description, “Like all cultural watersheds, Ramones was embraced by a discerning few and slagged off as a bad joke by the uncomprehending majority.”[110] At the instigation of Ramones lead singer Joey Ramone, the members of Cleveland’s Frankenstein moved east to join the New York scene. Reconstituted as the Dead Boys, they played their first CBGB gig in late July.[111] In August, Ork put out an EP recorded by Hell with his new band that included the first released version of “Blank Generation”.[112]

The term punk initially referred to the scene in general, rather than a particular sound—the early New York punk bands represented a broad variety of influences. Among them, the Ramones, The Heartbreakers, Richard Hell and The Voidoids, and the Dead Boys were establishing a distinct musical style. Even where they diverged most clearly, in lyrical approach—the Ramones’ apparent guilelessness at one extreme, Hell’s conscious craft at the other—there was an abrasive attitude in common. Their shared attributes of minimalism and speed, however, had not yet come to define punk rock.[113]

Other U.S. cities

With what music historian Clinton Heylin described as the “most brutal guitar sound this side of The Stooges“,[114] Crime self-released the first single by a West Coast punk band, two songs (the B-side was “Baby, You’re So Repulsive”) in a style likened to “revved up, distorted Chuck Berry“.[115]

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Chickasha, Oklahoma gave birth to avant garde, glam-punk bands Victoria Vein And The Thunderpunks in 1974 and Debris’ in 1975 whose self-released underground classic Static Disposal was released in 1976. The album has been touted as an inspiration by numerous bands including Scream, Nurse With Wound, The Melvins and Sonic Youth. [116][117][118] In 1975, the Suicide Commandos formed in Minneapolis. They were one of the first U.S. bands outside of New York to play in the Ramones-style harder-louder-faster mode that would define punk rock.[119] Detroit’s Death self-released one of their 1974 recordings, “Politicians in My Eyes”, in 1976.[60] As the punk movement expanded rapidly in the United Kingdom that year, a few bands with similar tastes and attitude appeared around the United States. The first West Coast punk scenes emerged in San Francisco, with the bands Crime and The Nuns,[120] and Seattle, where the Telepaths, Meyce, and The Tupperwares played a groundbreaking show on May 1.[121] Rock critic Richard Meltzer cofounded VOM (short for “vomit”) in Los Angeles. In Washington, D.C., raucous roots-rockers The Razz helped along a nascent punk scene featuring Overkill, the Slickee Boys, and The Look. Around the turn of the year, White Boy began giving notoriously crazed performances.[122] In Boston, the scene at the Rathskeller—affectionately known as the Rat—was also turning toward punk, though the defining sound retained a distinct garage rock orientation. Among the city’s first new acts to be identified with punk rock was DMZ.[123] In Bloomington, Indiana, The Gizmos played in a jokey, raunchy, Dictators-inspired style later referred to as “frat punk”.[124]

Like their garage rock predecessors, these local scenes were facilitated by enthusiastic impresarios who operated nightclubs or organized concerts in venues such as schools, garages, or warehouses, advertised via inexpensively printed flyers and fanzines. In some cases, punk’s do it yourself ethic reflected an aversion to commercial success, as well as a desire to maintain creative and financial autonomy.[125] As Joe Harvard, a participant in the Boston scene, describes, it was often a simple necessity—the absence of a local recording industry and well-distributed music magazines left little recourse but DIY.[126]


Sounds magazine in Britain found “(I’m) Stranded” “so bloody incredible” it provided readers the Australian address from which they could mail order it.[127] Ed Kuepper‘s “sheet-metal guitar sets the breakneck tempo”, while lead singer Chris Bailey “howl[s] into the gale.”[128] Its DIY sound was later described as “crud-encrusted”, praise in the punk milieu.[129]

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At the same time, a similar music-based subculture was beginning to take shape in various parts of Australia. A scene was developing around Radio Birdman and its main performance venue, the Oxford Tavern (later the Oxford Funhouse), located in Sydney’s Darlinghurst suburb. In December 1975, the group won the RAM (Rock Australia Magazine)/Levi’s Punk Band Thriller competition.[130] By 1976, The Saints were hiring Brisbane local halls to use as venues, or playing in “Club 76”, their shared house in the inner suburb of Petrie Terrace. The band soon discovered that musicians were exploring similar paths in other parts of the world. Ed Kuepper, co-founder of The Saints, later recalled:

One thing I remember having had a really depressing effect on me was the first Ramones album. When I heard it [in 1976], I mean it was a great record … but I hated it because I knew we’d been doing this sort of stuff for years. There was even a chord progression on that album that we used … and I thought, “Fuck. We’re going to be labeled as influenced by the Ramones”, when nothing could have been further from the truth.[131]

On the other side of Australia, in Perth, germinal punk rock act the Cheap Nasties, featuring singer-guitarist Kim Salmon, formed in August.[132] In September 1976, The Saints became the first punk rock band outside the U.S. to release a recording, the single “(I’m) Stranded“. As with Patti Smith’s debut, the band self-financed, packaged, and distributed the single.[133] “(I’m) Stranded” had limited impact at home, but the British music press recognized it as a groundbreaking record.[134] At the insistence of their superiors in the UK, EMI Australia signed The Saints. Meanwhile, Radio Birdman came out with a self-financed EP, Burn My Eye, in October.[135] Trouser Press critic Ian McCaleb later described the record as the “archetype for the musical explosion that was about to occur”.[136]

United Kingdom

With its “inflammatory, venomous lyrics [and] crude energy”, the Sex Pistols‘ debut single “established punk’s modus operandi”.[137] Producer Chris Thomas layered multiple tracks of Steve Jones‘s guitar to create a “searing wall of sound”,[138] while Johnny Rotten spewed the vocals “as if his teeth had been ground down to points.”[139]

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After a brief period unofficially managing the New York Dolls, Briton Malcolm McLaren returned to London in May 1975, inspired by the new scene he had witnessed at CBGB. The Kings Road clothing store he co-owned, recently renamed Sex, was building a reputation with its outrageous “anti-fashion”.[140] Among those who frequented the shop were members of a band called The Strand, which McLaren had also been managing. In August, the group was seeking a new lead singer. Another Sex habitué, Johnny Rotten, auditioned for and won the job. Adopting a new name, the group played its first gig as the Sex Pistols on November 6, 1975, at Saint Martin’s School of Art[141] and soon attracted a small but ardent following.[142] In February 1976, the band received its first significant press coverage; guitarist Steve Jones declared that the Sex Pistols were not so much into music as they were “chaos”.[143] The band often provoked its crowds into near-riots. Rotten announced to one audience, “Bet you don’t hate us as much as we hate you!”[144] McLaren envisioned the Sex Pistols as central players in a new youth movement, “hard and tough”.[145] As described by critic Jon Savage, the band members “embodied an attitude into which McLaren fed a new set of references: late-sixties radical politics, sexual fetish material, pop history,…youth sociology”.[146]

Bernard Rhodes, a sometime associate of McLaren and friend of the Sex Pistols, was similarly aiming to make stars of the band London SS. Early in 1976, London SS broke up before ever performing publicly, spinning off two new bands: The Damned and The Clash, which was joined by Joe Strummer, former lead singer of The 101’ers.[147] On June 4, 1976, the Sex Pistols played Manchester’s Lesser Free Trade Hall in what came to be regarded as one of the most influential rock shows ever. Among the approximately forty audience members were the two locals who organised the gig—they had formed the Buzzcocks after seeing the Sex Pistols in February. Others in the small crowd went on to form Joy Division, The Fall, and—in the 1980s—The Smiths.[148]

In July, the Ramones crossed the Atlantic for two London shows that helped spark the nascent UK punk scene and affected its musical style—”instantly nearly every band speeded up”.[149] On July 4, they played with the Flamin’ Groovies and The Stranglers before a crowd of 2,000 at the Roundhouse.[150] That same night, The Clash debuted, opening for the Sex Pistols in Sheffield. On July 5, members of both bands attended a Ramones club gig.[151] The following night, The Damned performed their first show, as the Sex Pistols opening act in London. In critic Kurt Loder‘s description, the Sex Pistols purveyed a “calculated, arty nihilism, [while] the Clash were unabashed idealists, proponents of a radical left-wing social critique of a sort that reached back at least to … Woody Guthrie in the 1940s”.[152] The Damned built a reputation as “punk’s party boys”.[153] This London scene’s first fanzine appeared a week later. Its title, Sniffin’ Glue, derived from a Ramones song. Its subtitle affirmed the connection with what was happening in New York: “+ Other Rock ‘n’ Roll Habits for Punks!”[154]

Another Sex Pistols gig in Manchester on July 20, with a reorganized version of the Buzzcocks debuting in support, gave further impetus to the scene there.[155] In August, the self-described “First European Punk Rock Festival” was held in Mont de Marsan in the southwest of France. Eddie and the Hot Rods, a London pub rock group, headlined. The Sex Pistols, originally scheduled to play, were dropped by the organizers who said the band had gone “too far” in demanding top billing and certain amenities; The Clash backed out in solidarity. The only band from the new punk movement to appear was The Damned.[156]

Over the next several months, many new punk rock bands formed, often directly inspired by the Sex Pistols.[157] In London, women were near the center of the scene—among the initial wave of bands were the female-fronted Siouxsie and the Banshees and X-Ray Spex and the all-female The Slits. There were female bassists Gaye Advert in The Adverts and Shanne Bradley in The Nipple Erectors. Other groups included Subway Sect, Eater, The Subversives, the aptly named London, and Chelsea, which soon spun off Generation X. Farther afield, Sham 69 began practicing in the southeastern town of Hersham. In Durham, there was Penetration, with lead singer Pauline Murray. On September 20–21, the 100 Club Punk Festival in London featured the four primary British groups (London’s big three and the Buzzcocks), as well as Paris’s female-fronted Stinky Toys, arguably the first punk rock band from a non-Anglophone country. Siouxsie and the Banshees and Subway Sect debuted on the festival’s first night; that same evening, Eater debuted in Manchester.[158] On the festival’s second night, audience member Sid Vicious was arrested, charged with throwing a glass at The Damned that shattered and destroyed a girl’s eye. Press coverage of the incident fueled punk’s reputation as a social menace.[159]

The Sex Pistols‘ “Anarchy in the U.K.” poster—a ripped and safety-pinned Union Flag.[160] Jamie Reid‘s work had a major influence on punk style and contemporary graphic design in general.[161]

Some new bands, such as London’s Alternative TV, Edinburgh’s Rezillos, and Leamington‘s The Shapes, identified with the scene even as they pursued more experimental music. Others of a comparatively traditional rock ‘n’ roll bent were also swept up by the movement: The Vibrators, formed as a pub rock–style act in February 1976, soon adopted a punk look and sound.[162] A few even longer-active bands including Surrey neo-mods The Jam and pub rockers The Stranglers and Cock Sparrer also became associated with the punk rock scene. Alongside the musical roots shared with their American counterparts and the calculated confrontationalism of the early Who, the British punks also reflected the influence of glam rock and related bands such as Slade, T.Rex, and Roxy Music.[163] One of the groups openly acknowledging that influence were The Undertones, from Derry in Northern Ireland.[164]

In October, The Damned became the first UK punk rock band to release a single, the romance-themed “New Rose“.[165] The Vibrators followed the next month with “We Vibrate” and, backing long-time rocker Chris Spedding, “Pogo Dancing”. The latter was hardly a punk song by any stretch, but it was perhaps the first song about punk rock. On 26 November, the Sex Pistols’ “Anarchy in the U.K.” came out—with its debut single the band succeeded in its goal of becoming a “national scandal”.[166] Jamie Reid‘s “anarchy flag” poster and his other design work for the Sex Pistols helped establish a distinctive punk visual aesthetic.[161] On December 1, an incident took place that sealed punk rock’s notorious reputation: On Thames Today, an early evening London TV show, Sex Pistols guitarist Steve Jones was goaded into a verbal altercation by the host, Bill Grundy. Jones called Grundy a “dirty fucker” on live television, triggering a media controversy.[167] Two days later, the Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Damned, and The Heartbreakers set out on the Anarchy Tour, a series of gigs throughout the UK. Many of the shows were cancelled by venue owners in response to the media outrage following the Grundy confrontation.[168]

Second wave

By 1977, a second wave of the punk rock movement was breaking in the three countries where it had emerged, as well as in many other places. Bands from the same scenes often sounded very different from each other, reflecting the eclectic state of punk music during the era.[169] While punk rock remained largely an underground phenomenon in North America, Australia, and the new spots where it was emerging, in the UK it briefly became a major sensation.[170][171]

North America

As inchoate as its name suggests, The Germs‘ “Forming” was the first L.A. punk record[172] and pointed directly toward the hardcore sound that would soon emerge.[173] The teenagers’ performance has been described both as a signal example of punk incompetence[174] and as “bringing monotony to new heights”.[175]

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The California punk scene was in full swing by early 1977. In Los Angeles, there were The Weirdos, The Zeros, Black Randy and the Metrosquad, The Germs, X, The Dickies, The Bags, and the relocated Tupperwares, now dubbed The Screamers.[176] San Francisco’s second wave included The Avengers, Negative Trend, The Mutants, and The Sleepers.[177] The Dils, from Carlsbad, moved between the two major cities.[178] The Wipers formed in Portland, Oregon. In Seattle, there was The Lewd.[179] Often sharing gigs with the Seattle punks were bands from across the Canadian border. A major scene developed in Vancouver, spearheaded by the Furies and Victoria’s all-female Dee Dee and the Dishrags.[179] The Skulls spun off into D.O.A. and The Subhumans. The K-Tels (later known as the Young Canadians) and Pointed Sticks were among the area’s other leading punk acts.[180]

In eastern Canada, the Toronto protopunk band Dishes had laid the groundwork for another sizable scene,[181] and a September 1976 concert by the touring Ramones had catalyzed the movement. Early Ontario punk bands included The Diodes, The Viletones, The Battered Wives, The Demics, Forgotten Rebels, Teenage Head, The Poles, and The Ugly. Along with the Dishrags, Toronto’s The Curse and B Girls were North America’s first all-female punk acts.[182] In July 1977, the Viletones, Diodes, Curse, and Teenage Head headed down to New York City to play “Canada night” at CBGB.[183]

By mid-1977 in downtown New York, punk rock was already ceding its cutting-edge status to the anarchic sound of Teenage Jesus and the Jerks and Mars, spearheads of what became known as no wave,[184] although several original punk bands continued to perform and new ones emerged on the scene. The Cramps, whose core members were from Sacramento by way of Akron, had debuted at CBGB in November 1976, opening for the Dead Boys. They were soon playing regularly at Max’s Kansas City.[185] The Misfits formed in nearby New Jersey. Still developing what would become their signature B movie–inspired style, later dubbed horror punk, they made their first appearance at CBGB in April 1977.[186]

The Misfits developed a “horror punk” style.

Leave Home, the Ramones’ second album, had come out in January.[187] The Dead Boys’ debut LP, Young, Loud and Snotty, was released at the end of August.[188] October saw two more debut albums from the scene: Richard Hell and The Voidoids’ first full-length, Blank Generation, and the Heartbreakers’ L.A.M.F.[189] One track on the latter exemplified both the scene’s close-knit character and the popularity of heroin within it: “Chinese Rocks“—the title refers to a strong form of the drug—was written by Dee Dee Ramone and Hell, both users, as were the Heartbreakers’ Thunders and Nolan.[190] (During the Heartbreakers’ 1976 and 1977 tours of Britain, Thunders played a central role in popularizing heroin among the punk crowd there, as well.)[191] The Ramones’ third album, Rocket to Russia, appeared in November 1977.[192]

The Ohio protopunk bands were joined by Cleveland’s The Pagans,[193] Akron’s Bizarros and Rubber City Rebels, and Kent’s Human Switchboard. Bloomington, Indiana, had MX-80 Sound and Detroit had The Sillies. The Suburbs came together in the Twin Cities scene sparked by the Suicide Commandos. The Feederz formed in Arizona. Atlanta had The Fans. In North Carolina, there was Chapel Hill’s H-Bombs and Raleigh’s Th’ Cigaretz.[194] The Chicago scene began not with a band but with a group of DJs transforming a gay bar, La Mere Vipere, into what became known as America’s first punk dance club. The Crucified, Tutu and the Pirates and Silver Abuse were among the city’s first punk bands.[195] In Boston, the scene at the Rat was joined by the Nervous Eaters, Thrills, and Human Sexual Response.[194][196] In Washington, D.C., the Controls played their first gig in spring 1977, but the city’s second wave really broke the following year with acts such as Urban Verbs, Half Japanese, D’Chumps, Rudements and Shirkers.[197] By early 1978, the D.C. jazz-fusion group Mind Power had transformed into Bad Brains, one of the first bands to be identified with hardcore punk.[194][198]

United Kingdom

X-Ray Spex‘ debut single, an antimaterialistic anthem considered “one of punk rock’s defining moments.”[199] As Lora Logic‘s saxophone “serrate[s] right through the ubiquitous guitar-buzzsaw”,[200] Poly Styrene sings “in a voice somewhere between that of a wailing baby and that of a banshee”.[201]

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The Sex Pistols’ live TV skirmish with Bill Grundy was the signal moment in British punk’s transformation into a major media phenomenon, even as some stores refused to stock the records and radio airplay was hard to come by.[202] Press coverage of punk misbehavior grew intense: On January 4, 1977, The Evening News of London ran a front-page story on how the Sex Pistols “vomited and spat their way to an Amsterdam flight”.[203] In February 1977, the first album by a British punk band appeared: Damned Damned Damned (by the Damned) reached number thirty-six on the UK chart. The EP Spiral Scratch, self-released by Manchester’s Buzzcocks, was a benchmark for both the DIY ethic and regionalism in the country’s punk movement.[204] The Clash’s self-titled debut album came out two months later and rose to number twelve; the single “White Riot” entered the top forty. In May, the Sex Pistols achieved new heights of controversy (and number two on the singles chart) with “God Save the Queen“. The band had recently acquired a new bassist, Sid Vicious, who was seen as exemplifying the punk persona.[205]

Scores of new punk groups formed around the United Kingdom, as far from London as Belfast‘s Stiff Little Fingers and Dunfermline, Scotland’s The Skids. Though most survived only briefly, perhaps recording a small-label single or two, others set off new trends. Crass, from Essex, merged a vehement, straight-ahead punk rock style with a committed anarchist mission, and played a major role in the emerging anarcho-punk movement.[206] Sham 69, London’s Menace, and the Angelic Upstarts from South Shields in the Northeast combined a similarly stripped-down sound with populist lyrics, a style that became known as street punk. These expressly working-class bands contrasted with others in the second wave that presaged the post-punk phenomenon. Liverpool’s first punk group, Big in Japan, moved in a glam, theatrical direction.[207] The band didn’t survive long, but it spun off several well-known post-punk acts.[208] The songs of London’s Wire were characterized by sophisticated lyrics, minimalist arrangements, and extreme brevity.[209] By the end of 1977, according to music historian Clinton Heylin, they were “England’s arch-exponents of New Musick, and the true heralds of what came next.”[210]

The stark cover design of Wire‘s debut LP, Pink Flag, symbolized the evolution of punk style.[211]

Alongside thirteen original songs that would define classic punk rock, The Clash’s debut had included a cover of the recent Jamaican reggae hit “Police and Thieves“.[212] Other first wave bands such as The Slits and new entrants to the scene like The Ruts and The Police interacted with the reggae and ska subcultures, incorporating their rhythms and production styles. The punk rock phenomenon helped spark a full-fledged ska revival movement known as 2 Tone, centered around bands such as The Specials, The Beat, Madness, and The Selecter.[213]

June 1977 saw the release of another charting punk album: The Vibrators’ Pure Mania. In July, the Sex Pistols’ third single, “Pretty Vacant“, reached number six and The Saints had a top-forty hit with “This Perfect Day“. Recently arrived from Australia, the band was now considered insufficiently “cool” to qualify as punk by much of the British media, though they had been playing a similar brand of music for years.[214] In August, The Adverts entered the top twenty with “Gary Gilmore’s Eyes”. As punk became a broad-based national phenomenon in the summer of 1977, punk musicians and fans were increasingly subject to violent assaults by Teddy boys, football yobbos, and others. A Ted-aligned band recorded “The Punk Bashing Boogie”.[215]

In September, Generation X and The Clash reached the top forty with, respectively, “Your Generation” and “Complete Control“. X-Ray Spex’ “Oh Bondage Up Yours!” didn’t chart, but it became a requisite item for punk fans.[216] In October, the Sex Pistols hit number eight with “Holidays in the Sun“, followed by the release of their first and only “official” album, Never Mind the Bollocks, Here’s the Sex Pistols. Inspiring yet another round of controversy, it topped the British charts. In December, one of the first books about punk rock was published: The Boy Looked at Johnny, by Julie Burchill and Tony Parsons.[217]


In February 1977, EMI released The Saints’ debut album, (I’m) Stranded, which the band recorded in two days.[218] The Saints had relocated to Sydney; in April, they and Radio Birdman united for a major gig at Paddington Town Hall.[219] Last Words had also formed in the city. The following month, The Saints relocated again, to Great Britain. In June, Radio Birdman released the album Radios Appear on its own Trafalgar label.[135]

The Victims became a short-lived leader of the Perth scene, self-releasing the classic “Television Addict“. They were joined by The Scientists, Kim Salmon‘s successor band to the Cheap Nasties. Among the other bands constituting Australia’s second wave were Johnny Dole & The Scabs, the Hellcats, and Psychosurgeons (later known as the Lipstick Killers) in Sydney;[220] The Leftovers, The Survivors, and Razar in Brisbane;[221] and La Femme, The Negatives, and The Babeez (later known as The News) in Melbourne.[222] Melbourne’s art rock–influenced Boys Next Door featured singer Nick Cave, who would become one of the world’s best-known post-punk artists.[223]

Rest of the world

With its “near motorik beat … gruff guitar riffs, shouted lyrics, and the occasionally swooping synth line”, Métal Urbain‘s debut single is one of the earliest examples anywhere of a style that would become identified with post-punk.[224]

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Meanwhile, punk rock scenes were emerging around the globe. In France, les punks, a Parisian subculture of Lou Reed fans, had already been around for years.[225] Following the lead of Stinky Toys, Métal Urbain played its first concert in December 1976.[226] In August 1977, Asphalt Jungle played at the second Mont de Marsan punk festival.[227] Stinky Toys’ debut single, “Boozy Creed”, came out in September. It was perhaps the first non-English-language punk rock record, though as music historian George Gimarc notes, the punk enunciation made that distinction somewhat moot.[228] The following month, Métal Urbain’s first 45, “Panik”, appeared.[229] After the release of their minimalist punk debut, “Rien à dire”, Marie et les Garçons became involved in New York’s mutant disco scene.[230] Asphalt Jungle’s “Deconnection” and Gasoline’s “Killer Man” also came out before the end of the year, and other French punk acts such as Oberkampf and Starshooter soon formed.[231]

1977 also saw the debut album from Hamburg’s Big Balls and the Great White Idiot, arguably West Germany’s first punk band.[232] Other early German punk acts included the Fred Banana Combo and Pack. Bands primarily inspired by British punk sparked what became known as the Neue Deutsche Welle (NDW) movement. Vanguard NDW acts such as the Nina Hagen Band and S.Y.P.H. featured strident vocals and an emphasis on provocation.[233] Before turning in a mainstream direction in the 1980s, NDW attracted a politically conscious and diverse audience, including both participants of the left-wing alternative scene and neo-Nazi skinheads. These opposing factions were mutually attracted by a view of punk rock as “politically as well as musically…’against the system’.”[233]

Scandinavian punk was propelled early on by tour dates by bands such as The Clash and The Ramones (both in Stockholm in May 1977), and the Sex Pistols’ tour through Denmark, Sweden and Norway in July the same year. The band Briard jump-started Finnish punk with its November 1977 single “I Really Hate Ya”/”I Want Ya Back”; other early Finnish punk acts included Eppu Normaali and singer Pelle Miljoona. The first Swedish punk single was “Vårdad klädsel”/”Förbjudna ljud” released by Kriminella Gitarrer in February 1978, which started an extensive Swedish punk scene featuring act such as Ebba Grön, KSMB, Rude Kids, Besökarna, Liket Lever, Garbochock, Attentat, and many others. Within a couple of years, hundreds of punk singles were released in Sweden.[234]

In Japan, a punk movement developed around bands playing in an art/noise style such as Friction, and “psych punk” acts like Gaseneta and Kadotani Michio.[235] In New Zealand, Auckland’s Scavengers and Suburban Reptiles were followed by The Enemy of Dunedin.[194] I.[236] Punk rock scenes also grew in other countries such as Belgium (The Kids, Chainsaw),[237] the Netherlands (The Suzannes, The Ex),[238] Spain (La Banda Trapera Del Río, Kaka De Luxe),[239] and Switzerland (Nasal Boys, Kleenex).[240]

Schism and diversification

Flipper, performing in 1984

By 1979, the hardcore punk movement was emerging in Southern California. A rivalry developed between adherents of the new sound and the older punk rock crowd. Hardcore, appealing to a younger, more suburban audience, was perceived by some as anti-intellectual, overly violent, and musically limited. In Los Angeles, the opposing factions were often described as “Hollywood punks” and “beach punks”, referring to Hollywood’s central position in the original L.A. punk rock scene and to hardcore’s popularity in the shoreline communities of South Bay and Orange County.[241]

As hardcore became the dominant punk rock style, many bands of the older California punk rock movement split up, although X went on to mainstream success and The Go-Go’s, part of the Hollywood punk scene when they formed in 1978, adopted a pop sound and became major stars.[242] Across North America, many other first and second wave punk bands also dissolved, while younger musicians inspired by the movement explored new variations on punk. Some early punk bands transformed into hardcore acts. A few, most notably the Ramones, Richard Hell and The Voidoids, and Johnny Thunders and The Heartbreakers, continued to pursue the style they had helped create. Crossing the lines between “classic” punk, post-punk, and hardcore, San Francisco’s Flipper was founded in 1979 by former members of Negative Trend and The Sleepers.[243] They became “the reigning kings of American underground rock, for a few years”.[244]

Radio Birdman broke up in June 1978 while touring the UK,[135] where the early unity between bohemian, middle-class punks (many with art school backgrounds) and working-class punks had disintegrated.[245] In contrast to North America, more of the bands from the original British punk movement remained active, sustaining extended careers even as their styles evolved and diverged. Meanwhile, the Oi! and anarcho-punk movements were emerging. Musically in the same aggressive vein as American hardcore, they addressed different constituencies with overlapping but distinct anti-establishment messages. As described by Dave Laing, “The model for self-proclaimed punk after 1978 derived from the Ramones via the eight-to-the-bar rhythms most characteristic of The Vibrators and Clash. … It became essential to sound one particular way to be recognized as a ‘punk band’ now.”[246] In February 1979, former Sex Pistols bassist Sid Vicious died of a heroin overdose in New York. If the Sex Pistols’ breakup the previous year had marked the end of the original UK punk scene and its promise of cultural transformation, for many the death of Vicious signified that it had been doomed from the start.[247]

The title track of The Clash‘s 1979 double album was the band’s biggest UK hit on first release.[248] The atmospheric production gives it a “grandeur rarely heard on punk records.”[249] Joe Strummer wanted it mixed to “sound like a foggy morning on the River Thames.”[250] The guitar chords on the second and fourth beats in the verse nod toward reggae.[249]

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By the turn of the decade, the punk rock movement had split deeply along cultural and musical lines, leaving a variety of derivative scenes and forms. On one side were new wave and post-punk artists; some adopted more accessible musical styles and gained broad popularity, while some turned in more experimental, less commercial directions. On the other side, hardcore punk, Oi!, and anarcho-punk bands became closely linked with underground cultures and spun off an array of subgenres.[251] Somewhere in between, pop punk groups created blends like that of the ideal record, as defined by Mekons cofounder Kevin Lycett: “a cross between Abba and the Sex Pistols”.[252] A range of other styles emerged, many of them fusions with long-established genres. The Clash album London Calling, released in December 1979, exemplified the breadth of classic punk’s legacy. Combining punk rock with reggae, ska, R&B, and rockabilly, it went on to be acclaimed as one of the best rock records ever.[253] At the same time, as observed by Flipper singer Bruce Loose, the relatively restrictive hardcore scenes diminished the variety of music that could once be heard at many punk gigs.[169] If early punk, like most rock scenes, was ultimately male-oriented, the hardcore and Oi! scenes were significantly more so, marked in part by the slam dancing and moshing with which they became identified.[254]

New wave

For more details on this topic, see New wave music.

Debbie Harry performing in Toronto in 1977

In 1976—first in London, then in the United States—”New Wave” was introduced as a complementary label for the formative scenes and groups also known as “punk”; the two terms were essentially interchangeable.[255] NME journalist Roy Carr is credited with proposing the term’s use (adopted from the cinematic French New Wave of the 1960s) in this context.[256] Over time, “new wave” acquired a distinct meaning: Bands such as Blondie and Talking Heads from the CBGB scene; The Cars, who emerged from the Rat in Boston; The Go-Go’s in Los Angeles; and The Police in London that were broadening their instrumental palette, incorporating dance-oriented rhythms, and working with more polished production were specifically designated “new wave” and no longer called “punk”. Dave Laing suggests that some punk-identified British acts pursued the new wave label in order to avoid radio censorship and make themselves more palatable to concert bookers.[257]

Bringing elements of punk rock music and fashion into more pop-oriented, less “dangerous” styles, new wave artists became very popular on both sides of the Atlantic.[258] New wave became a catch-all term,[259] encompassing disparate styles such as 2 Tone ska, the mod revival inspired by The Jam, the sophisticated pop-rock of Elvis Costello and XTC, the New Romantic phenomenon typified by Ultravox, synthpop groups like Tubeway Army (which had started out as a straight-ahead punk band) and Human League, and the sui generis subversions of Devo, who had gone “beyond punk before punk even properly existed”.[260] New wave became a pop culture sensation with the debut of the cable television network MTV in 1981, which put many new wave videos into regular rotation. However, the music was often derided at the time as being silly and disposable.[261]


For more details on this topic, see Post-punk.
The Fall‘s 1980 ode to amphetamines.[262] With its “taut, twitchy, dissonant music and Mark E. Smith tunelessly screaming”, writes Toby Creswell, it “mostly resembles the Legendary Stardust Cowboy‘s ‘Paralysed‘ for its live feel and sense of abandon…like a new wave record played badly rather than a punk record played well.”[263]

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During 1976–77, in the midst of the original UK punk movement, bands emerged such as Manchester’s Joy Division, The Fall, and Magazine, Leeds’ Gang of Four, and London’s The Raincoats that became central post-punk figures. Some bands classified as post-punk, such as Throbbing Gristle and Cabaret Voltaire, had been active well before the punk scene coalesced;[264] others, such as The Slits and Siouxsie and the Banshees, transitioned from punk rock into post-punk. A few months after the Sex Pistols’ breakup, John Lydon (no longer “Rotten”) cofounded Public Image Ltd. Lora Logic, formerly of X-Ray Spex, founded Essential Logic. Killing Joke formed in 1979. These bands were often musically experimental, like certain new wave acts; defining them as “post-punk” was a sound that tended to be less pop and more dark and abrasive—sometimes verging on the atonal, as with Subway Sect and Wire—and an anti-establishment posture directly related to punk’s. Post-punk reflected a range of art rock influences from Captain Beefheart to David Bowie and Roxy Music to Krautrock and, once again, the Velvet Underground.[11]

Post-punk brought together a new fraternity of musicians, journalists, managers, and entrepreneurs; the latter, notably Geoff Travis of Rough Trade and Tony Wilson of Factory, helped to develop the production and distribution infrastructure of the indie music scene that blossomed in the mid-1980s.[265] Smoothing the edges of their style in the direction of new wave, several post-punk bands such as New Order (descended from Joy Division), The Cure, and U2 crossed over to a mainstream U.S. audience. Bauhaus was one of the formative gothic rock bands. Others, like Gang of Four, The Raincoats and Throbbing Gristle, who had little more than cult followings at the time, are seen in retrospect as significant influences on modern popular culture.[266]

A number of U.S. artists were retrospectively defined as post-punk; Television’s debut album Marquee Moon, released in 1977, is frequently cited as a seminal album in the field.[267] The no wave movement that developed in New York in the late 1970s, with artists such as Lydia Lunch and James Chance, is often treated as the phenomenon’s U.S. parallel.[268] The later work of Ohio protopunk pioneers Pere Ubu is also commonly described as post-punk.[269] One of the most influential American post-punk bands was Boston’s Mission of Burma, who brought abrupt rhythmic shifts derived from hardcore into a highly experimental musical context.[270] In 1980, Australia’s Boys Next Door moved to London and changed their name to The Birthday Party, which evolved into Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. Led by the Primitive Calculators, Melbourne’s Little Band scene would further explore the possibilities of post-punk.[271] Later alternative rock musicians found diverse inspiration among these post-punk predecessors, as they did among their new wave contemporaries.[272]


For more details on this topic, see Hardcore punk.

Bad Brains at 9:30 Club, Washington, D.C., 1983

A distinctive style of punk, characterized by superfast, aggressive beats, screaming vocals, and often politically aware lyrics, began to emerge in 1978 among bands scattered around the United States and Canada. The first major scene of what came to be known as hardcore punk developed in Southern California in 1978–79,[273] initially around such punk bands as The Germs and Fear.[274] The movement soon spread around North America and internationally.[275][276][277] According to author Steven Blush, “Hardcore comes from the bleak suburbs of America. Parents moved their kids out of the cities to these horrible suburbs to save them from the ‘reality’ of the cities and what they ended up with was this new breed of monster”.[17]

Bad Brains‘ debut single, “Pay to Cum” (1980), typifying the band’s “high-speed playing, rapid-fire lyrics, dramatic pauses, and performance intensity,”[278] was pivotal in hardcore’s emergence as the American punk standard.[279]

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Among the earliest hardcore bands, regarded as having made the first recordings in the style, were Southern California’s Middle Class and Black Flag.[276][277] Bad Brains—all of whom were black, a rarity in punk of any era—launched the D.C. scene.[275] Austin, Texas‘s Big Boys, San Francisco’s Dead Kennedys, and Vancouver‘s D.O.A. were among the other initial hardcore groups. They were soon joined by bands such as the Minutemen, Descendents, Circle Jerks, Adolescents, and T.S.O.L. in Southern California; D.C.’s Teen Idles, Minor Threat, and State of Alert; and Austin’s MDC and The Dicks. By 1981, hardcore was the dominant punk rock style not only in California, but much of the rest of North America as well.[280] A New York hardcore scene grew, including the relocated Bad Brains, New Jersey’s Misfits and Adrenalin O.D., and local acts such as the Nihilistics, The Mob, Reagan Youth, and Agnostic Front. Beastie Boys, who would become famous as a hip-hop group, debuted that year as a hardcore band. They were followed by The Cro-Mags, Murphy’s Law, and Leeway.[281] By 1983, St. Paul‘s Hüsker Dü, Willful Neglect, Chicago’s Naked Raygun and D.C.’s The Faith were taking the hardcore sound in experimental and ultimately more melodic directions.[282] Hardcore would constitute the American punk rock standard throughout the decade.[283]

The lyrical content of hardcore songs is often critical of commercial culture and middle-class values, as in Dead Kennedys’ celebrated “Holiday in Cambodia” (1980).[277] Straight edge bands like Minor Threat, Boston‘s SS Decontrol, and Reno, Nevada‘s 7 Seconds rejected the self-destructive lifestyles of many of their peers, and built a movement based on positivity and abstinence from cigarettes, alcohol, drugs, and casual sex.[284] In the early 1980s, bands from the American southwest and California such as JFA, Agent Orange, and The Faction helped create a rhythmically distinctive style of hardcore known as skate punk. Skate punk innovators also pointed in other directions: Big Boys helped establish funkcore, while Venice, California‘s Suicidal Tendencies had a formative effect on the heavy metal–influenced crossover thrash style. Toward the end of the decade, crossover thrash spawned the metalcore fusion style and the superfast thrashcore subgenre developed in multiple locations.[285] Sacramento‘s Tales of Terror, which mixed psychedelic rock into their hardcore sound, were an early influence on the grunge movement.[286] D.C.’s Void was one of the first punk-metal crossover acts and influenced thrash metal.[287][288]


For more details on this topic, see Oi!.
The title track of The Exploited‘s debut, Punks Not Dead, the top independent UK album of 1981.[289] Defying punk’s disappearance from the British mainstream, the song exemplifies the band’s sound and that of Oi! groups in general: “harsher, darker, and cruder than their ’77 forefathers.”[290]

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Following the lead of first-wave British punk bands Cock Sparrer and Sham 69, in the late 1970s second-wave units like Cockney Rejects, Angelic Upstarts, The Exploited, and The 4-Skins sought to realign punk rock with a working class, street-level following.[291] For that purpose, they believed, the music needed to stay “accessible and unpretentious”, in the words of music historian Simon Reynolds.[292] Their style was originally called “real punk” or street punk; Sounds journalist Garry Bushell is credited with labelling the genre Oi! in 1980. The name is partly derived from the Cockney Rejects’ habit of shouting “Oi! Oi! Oi!” before each song, instead of the time-honored “1,2,3,4!”[293] Oi! bands’ lyrics sought to reflect the harsh realities of living in Margaret Thatcher‘s Britain in the late 1970s and early 1980s.[294]

Strength Thru Oi!, with its notorious image of British Movement activist and felon Nicky Crane[295]

The Oi! movement was fueled by a sense that many participants in the early punk rock scene were, in the words of The Business guitarist Steve Kent, “trendy university people using long words, trying to be artistic … and losing touch”.[296] According to Bushell, “Punk was meant to be of the voice of the dole queue, and in reality most of them were not. But Oi was the reality of the punk mythology. In the places where [these bands] came from, it was harder and more aggressive and it produced just as much quality music.”[297] Lester Bangs described Oi! as “politicized football chants for unemployed louts”.[298] One song in particular, The Exploited’s “Punks Not Dead”, spoke to an international constituency. It was adopted as an anthem by the groups of disaffected Mexican urban youth known in the 1980s as bandas; one banda named itself PND, after the song’s initials.[299]

Although most Oi! bands in the initial wave were apolitical or left wing, many of them began to attract a white power skinhead following. Racist skinheads sometimes disrupted Oi! concerts by shouting fascist slogans and starting fights, but some Oi! bands were reluctant to endorse criticism of their fans from what they perceived as the “middle-class establishment”.[300] In the popular imagination, the movement thus became linked to the far right.[301] Strength Thru Oi!, an album compiled by Bushell and released in May 1981, stirred controversy, especially when it was revealed that the belligerent figure on the cover was a neo-Nazi jailed for racist violence (Bushell claimed ignorance).[295] On July 3, a concert at Hamborough Tavern in Southall featuring The Business, The 4-Skins, and The Last Resort was firebombed by local Asian youths who believed that the event was a neo-Nazi gathering.[302] Following the Southall riot, press coverage increasingly associated Oi! with the extreme right, and the movement soon began to lose momentum.[294]


For more details on this topic, see Anarcho-punk.

Crass were the originators of anarcho-punk.[303] Spurning the “cult of rock star personality”, their plain, all-black dress became a staple of the genre.[304]

Anarcho-punk developed alongside the Oi! and American hardcore movements. Inspired by Crass, its Dial House commune, and its independent Crass Records label, a scene developed around British bands such as Subhumans, Flux of Pink Indians, Conflict, Poison Girls, and The Apostles that was concerned as much with anarchist and DIY principles as it was with music. The acts featured ranting vocals, discordant instrumental sounds, primitive production values, and lyrics filled with political and social content, often addressing issues such as class inequalities and military violence.[305] Anarcho-punk musicians and fans disdained the older punk scene from which theirs had evolved. In historian Tim Gosling’s description, they saw “safety pins and Mohicans as little more than ineffectual fashion posturing stimulated by the mainstream media and industry…. Whereas the Sex Pistols would proudly display bad manners and opportunism in their dealings with ‘the establishment,’ the anarcho-punks kept clear of ‘the establishment’ altogether”.[306]

The movement spun off several subgenres of a similar political bent. Discharge, founded back in 1977, established D-beat in the early 1980s. Other groups in the movement, led by Amebix and Antisect, developed the extreme style known as crust punk. Several of these bands rooted in anarcho-punk such as The Varukers, Discharge, and Amebix, along with former Oi! groups such as The Exploited and bands from father afield like Birmingham’s Charged GBH, became the leading figures in the UK 82 hardcore movement. The anarcho-punk scene also spawned bands such as Napalm Death, Carcass, and Extreme Noise Terror that in the mid-1980s defined grindcore, incorporating extremely fast tempos and death metal–style guitarwork.[307] Led by Dead Kennedys, a U.S. anarcho-punk scene developed around such bands as Austin’s MDC and Southern California’s Another Destructive System.[308]

Pop punk

For more details on this topic, see Pop punk.

With their love of the Beach Boys and late 1960s bubblegum pop, the Ramones paved the way to what became known as pop punk.[309] In the late 1970s, UK bands such as Buzzcocks and The Undertones combined pop-style tunes and lyrical themes with punk’s speed and chaotic edge.[310] In the early 1980s, some of the leading bands in Southern California’s hardcore punk rock scene emphasized a more melodic approach than was typical of their peers. According to music journalist Ben Myers, Bad Religion “layered their pissed off, politicized sound with the smoothest of harmonies”; Descendents “wrote almost surfy, Beach Boys–inspired songs about girls and food and being young(ish)”.[311] Epitaph Records, founded by Brett Gurewitz of Bad Religion, was the base for many future pop punk bands. Bands that fused punk with light-hearted pop melodies, such as The Queers and Screeching Weasel, began appearing around the country, in turn influencing bands like Green Day and The Offspring, who brought pop punk wide popularity and major record sales. Bands such as The Vandals and Guttermouth developed a style blending pop melodies with humorous and offensive lyrics. The mainstream pop punk of latter-day bands such as Blink-182 is criticized by many punk rock devotees; in critic Christine Di Bella’s words, “It’s punk taken to its most accessible point, a point where it barely reflects its lineage at all, except in the three-chord song structures.”[312]

Other fusions and directions

From 1977 on, punk rock crossed lines with many other popular music genres. Los Angeles punk rock bands laid the groundwork for a wide variety of styles: The Flesh Eaters with deathrock; The Plugz with Chicano punk; and Gun Club with punk blues. The Meteors, from South London, and The Cramps, who moved from New York to Los Angeles in 1980, were innovators in the psychobilly fusion style.[313] Milwaukee’s Violent Femmes jumpstarted the American folk punk scene, while The Pogues did the same on the other side of the Atlantic, influencing many Celtic punk bands.[314]

Other bands pointed punk rock toward future rock styles or its own foundations. New York’s Suicide, L.A.’s The Screamers and Nervous Gender, Australia’s JAB, and Germany’s DAF were pioneers of synthpunk. The Ex, from the Netherlands, were in the art punk vanguard.[315] Chicago’s Big Black was a major influence on noise rock, math rock, and industrial rock. Garage punk bands from all over—such as Medway‘s Thee Mighty Caesars, Chicago’s Dwarves, and Adelaide‘s Exploding White Mice—pursued a version of punk rock that was close to its roots in 1960s garage rock. Seattle’s Mudhoney, one of the central bands in the development of grunge, has been described as “garage punk”.[316]

Legacy and later developments

Alternative rock

Main article: Alternative rock

Sonic Youth‘s Kim Gordon in 1991, walking on her bass guitar

The underground punk rock movement inspired countless bands that either evolved from a punk rock sound or brought its outsider spirit to very different kinds of music. The original punk explosion also had a long-term effect on the music industry, spurring the growth of the independent sector.[317] During the early 1980s, British bands like New Order and The Cure that straddled the lines of post-punk and new wave developed both new musical styles and a distinctive industrial niche. Though commercially successful over an extended period, they maintained an underground-style, subcultural identity.[318] In the United States, bands such as Hüsker Dü and their Minneapolis protégés The Replacements bridged the gap between punk rock genres like hardcore and the more melodic, explorative realm of what was then called “college rock“.[319]

A 1985 Rolling Stone feature on the Minneapolis scene and innovative California hardcore acts such as Black Flag and Minutemen declared, “Primal punk is passé. The best of the American punk rockers have moved on. They have learned how to play their instruments. They have discovered melody, guitar solos and lyrics that are more than shouted political slogans. Some of them have even discovered the Grateful Dead.”[320] By the end of the 1980s, these bands, who had largely eclipsed their punk rock forebears in popularity, were classified broadly as alternative rock. Alternative rock encompasses a diverse set of styles—including gothic rock and grunge, among others—unified by their debt to punk rock and their origins outside of the musical mainstream.[321]

As American alternative bands like Sonic Youth, which had grown out of the no wave scene, and Boston’s Pixies started to gain larger audiences, major labels sought to capitalize on the underground market that had been sustained by hardcore punk for years.[322] In 1991, Nirvana emerged from Washington State’s grunge scene, achieving huge commercial success with its second album, Nevermind. The band’s members cited punk rock as a key influence on their style.[323] “Punk is musical freedom”, wrote singer Kurt Cobain. “It’s saying, doing, and playing what you want.”[324] Nirvana’s success opened the door to mainstream popularity for a wide range of other “left-of-the-dial” acts, such as Pearl Jam and Red Hot Chili Peppers, and fueled the alternative rock boom of the early and mid-1990s.[321][325]


For more details on this topic, see Emo.

In its original, mid-1980s incarnation, emo was a less musically restrictive style of punk developed by participants in the Washington, D.C. area hardcore scene. It was originally referred to as “emocore”, an abbreviation of “emotive hardcore”.[326] Notable early emo bands included Rites of Spring, Embrace, The Hated, and One Last Wish. The term derived from the tendency of some of these bands’ members to become strongly emotional during performances. Fugazi, formed out of the dissolution of Embrace, inspired a second, much broader based wave of emo bands beginning in the mid-1990s. Groups like San Diego’s Antioch Arrow generated new, more intense subgenres like screamo, while others developed a more melodic style closer to indie rock. Bands such as Seattle’s Sunny Day Real Estate and Mesa, Arizona‘s Jimmy Eat World broke out of the underground, attracting national attention.

Queercore and riot grrrl

Carrie Brownstein, performing with Sleater-Kinney in 2005

For more details on this topic, see Queercore and Riot grrrl.

In the 1990s, the queercore movement developed around a number of punk bands with gay, lesbian, or bisexual members such as God Is My Co-Pilot, Pansy Division, Team Dresch, and Sister George. Inspired by openly gay punk musicians of an earlier generation such as Jayne County, Phranc, and Randy Turner, and bands like Nervous Gender, The Screamers, and Coil, queercore embraces a variety of punk and other alternative music styles. Queercore lyrics often treat the themes of prejudice, sexual identity, gender identity, and individual rights. The movement has continued into the 21st century, supported by festivals such as Queeruption.[327]

In 1991, a concert of female-led bands at the International Pop Underground Convention in Olympia, Washington, heralded the emerging riot grrrl phenomenon. Billed as “Love Rock Revolution Girl Style Now”, the concert’s lineup included Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, Heavens to Betsy, L7, and Mecca Normal.[328] The riot grrrl movement foregrounded feminist concerns and progressive politics in general; the DIY ethic and fanzines were also central elements of the scene.[329] Singer-guitarists Corin Tucker of Heavens to Betsy and Carrie Brownstein of Excuse 17, bands active in both the queercore and riot grrrl scenes, cofounded the celebrated indie/punk band Sleater-Kinney in 1994. Bikini Kill’s lead singer, Kathleen Hanna, the iconic figure of riot grrrl, moved on to form the art punk group Le Tigre in 1998.[330]


The Green Day single that led the way in pop punk’s rise to mainstream success.[331] Playing with the quiet-loud dynamic associated with grunge,[332]Longview” features a conversational-sounding vocal from Billie Joe Armstrong in the verse and a lounge jazz–style bass line “wired to detonate.”[333]

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Green Day, performing in 2013

By the 1990s, punk rock was sufficiently ingrained in Western culture that punk trappings were often used to market highly commercial bands as “rebels”. Marketers capitalized on the style and hipness of punk rock to such an extent that a 1993 ad campaign for an automobile, the Subaru Impreza, claimed that the car was “like punk rock”.[334] Along with Nirvana, many of the leading alternative rock artists of the early 1990s acknowledged the influence of earlier punk rock acts. With Nirvana’s success, the major record companies once again saw punk bands as potentially profitable.[335]

In 1993, California’s Green Day and Bad Religion were both signed to major labels. The next year, Green Day put out Dookie, which became a huge hit, selling nine million albums in the United States in just over two years.[336] Bad Religion’s Stranger Than Fiction was certified gold.[337] Other California punk bands on the independent label Epitaph, run by Bad Religion guitarist Brett Gurewitz, also began achieving mainstream popularity. In 1994, Epitaph released Let’s Go by Rancid, Punk in Drublic by NOFX, and Smash by The Offspring, each eventually certified gold or better. That June, Green Day’s “Longview” reached number one on Billboard‘s Modern Rock Tracks chart and became a top forty airplay hit, arguably the first ever American punk song to do so; just one month later, The Offspring’s “Come Out and Play” followed suit. MTV and radio stations such as Los Angeles’ KROQ-FM played a major role in these bands’ crossover success, though NOFX refused to let MTV air its videos.[338]

Following the lead of Boston’s Mighty Mighty Bosstones and two California bands, Anaheim‘s No Doubt and Long Beach‘s Sublime, ska punk and ska-core became widely popular in the mid-1990s. By 1996, genre acts such as Reel Big Fish and Less Than Jake were being signed to major labels. The original 2 Tone bands had emerged amid punk rock’s second wave, but their music was much closer to its Jamaican roots—”ska at 78 rpm“.[339] Ska punk bands in the third wave of ska created a true musical fusion between the genres. …And Out Come the Wolves, the 1995 album by Rancid—which had evolved out of Operation Ivy—became the first record in this ska revival to be certified gold;[340] Sublime’s self-titled 1996 album was certified platinum early in 1997.[336] In Australia, two popular groups, skatecore band Frenzal Rhomb and pop punk act Bodyjar, also established followings in Japan.[341]

Green Day and Dookie’s enormous sales paved the way for a host of bankable North American pop punk bands in the following decade.[342] With punk rock’s renewed visibility came concerns among some in the punk community that the music was being co-opted by the mainstream.[338] They argued that by signing to major labels and appearing on MTV, punk bands like Green Day were buying into a system that punk was created to challenge.[343] Such controversies have been part of the punk culture since 1977, when The Clash was widely accused of “selling out” for signing with CBS Records.[344] The Vans Warped Tour and the mall chain store Hot Topic brought punk even further into the U.S. mainstream.[345]

In the mainstream

The first U.S. punk-identified single to reach the top ten, built on a “schoolyard-chant verse and na-na-na chorus”.[346]All the Small Things” exemplifies Blink-182‘s “formulaic hits”, in Marc Spitz‘s description: “adenoidal verse, minimally pulsing bass, explosive three-chord guitar riffs tempered by sweet harmony”.[347]

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By early 1998, the punk revival had commercially stalled,[348] but not for long. That November, The Offspring’s Americana on the major Columbia label debuted at number two on the album chart. A bootleg MP3 of its first single, “Pretty Fly (for a White Guy)“, made it on to the Internet and was downloaded a record 22 million times—illegally.[349] The following year, Enema of the State, the first major-label release by pop punk band Blink-182, reached the top ten and sold four million copies in under twelve months.[336] In January 2000, the album’s second single, “All the Small Things“, hit the sixth spot on the Billboard Hot 100. While they were viewed as Green Day “acolytes”,[347] critics also found teen pop acts like Britney Spears, the Backstreet Boys, and ‘N Sync suitable points of comparison for Blink-182’s sound and market niche.[350] The band’s Take Off Your Pants and Jacket (2001) and Blink-182 (2003) respectively rose to numbers one and three on the album chart. In November 2003, The New Yorker described how the “giddily puerile” act had “become massively popular with the mainstream audience, a demographic formerly considered untouchable by punk-rock purists.”[351]

Other new North American pop punk bands, though often critically dismissed, also achieved major sales in the first decade of the 2000s. Ontario’s Sum 41 reached the Canadian top ten with its 2001 debut album, All Killer, No Filler, which eventually went platinum in the United States. The record included the number one U.S. Alternative hit “Fat Lip“, which incorporated verses of what one critic called “brat rap.”[352]

Justin Sane and Chris#2 of Anti-Flag, performing in 2006

That same year, Green Day, which had gone through a relatively fallow period commercially, took American Idiot to number one on both the U.S. and UK charts; the band matched the feat five years later with 21st Century Breakdown. Jimmy Eat World, taking emo in a radio-ready pop punk direction,[353] had top ten albums in 2004 and 2007. In a similar style, Fall Out Boy hit number one with 2007’s Infinity on High. The wave of commercial success was broad-based: AFI, with roots in hardcore and skate punk, had great success with 2003’s Sing the Sorrow and topped the U.S. chart with Decemberunderground in 2006. Two years later, The Offspring had its fifth top ten album with Rise and Fall, Rage and Grace and its third Modern Rock/Alternative Songs chart-topper with “You’re Gonna Go Far, Kid“. Starting in 2003, Alkaline Trio had four consecutive top twenty-five albums, peaking at number eleven with 2010’s This Addiction.

The effect of commercialization on the music became an increasingly contentious issue. As observed by scholar Ross Haenfler, many punk fans “‘despise corporate punk rock’, typified by bands such as Sum 41 and Blink 182”.[354] At the same time, politicized and independent-label punk continued to thrive in the United States. Since 1993, Anti-Flag had been putting progressive politics at the center of its music. The administration of George W. Bush provided them and similarly minded acts eight years of conservative government to excoriate. Rise Against was the most successful of these groups, registering top ten records in 2006 with The Sufferer & the Witness and two years later with Appeal to Reason. Leftist folk punk band Against Me!‘s New Wave was named best album of 2007 by Spin.[355]

Elsewhere around the world, “punkabilly” band The Living End became major stars in Australia with their self-titled 1998 debut.[356]

See also

Wikinews has related news: Vivien Goldman: An interview with the Punk Professor


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  77. Jump up ^ Christgau, Robert (1971). [1] “Consumer Guide (20)” Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  78. Jump up ^ Houghton, Mick, “White Punks on Coke,” Let It Rock. December 1975.
  79. Jump up ^ Taylor (2003), p. 16.
  80. Jump up ^ Willis, Ellen, “Into the Seventies, for Real,” The New Yorker, December 1972; reprinted in Willis’s Out of the Vinyl Deeps (2001, University of Minneapolis Press), pp. 114–16. Italics in original.
  81. Jump up ^ Atkinson, Terry, “Hits and Misses”, Los Angeles Times, February 17, 1973, p. B6.
  82. Jump up ^ Laing (1985), p. 13; “Punk Magazine Listening Party # 7”, Punk Magazine, July 20, 2001. Retrieved on March 4, 2008.
  83. Jump up ^ Hilburn, Robert, “Touch of Stones in Dolls’ Album,” Los Angeles Times, May 7, 1974, p. C12.
  84. Jump up ^ Harvard, Joe, “Real Kids”, Boston Rock Storybook. Retrieved on November 27, 2007. Archived December 26, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  85. ^ Jump up to: a b Savage (1991), p. 131.
  86. Jump up ^ Savage (1991), pp. 130–131.
  87. Jump up ^ Taylor (2003), pp. 16–17.
  88. Jump up ^ Valentine (2006), p. 54.
  89. Jump up ^ Valentine (2006), pp. 52–55.
  90. Jump up ^ Savage (1991), pp. 86–90, 59–60.
  91. ^ Jump up to: a b Walker (1991), p. 662.
  92. Jump up ^ Strongman (2008), pp. 53, 54, 56.
  93. ^ Jump up to: a b Savage (1992), p. 89.
  94. Jump up ^ Bockris and Bayley (1999), p. 102.
  95. Jump up ^ “Patti Smith—Biography”. Arista Records. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-23. Strongman (2008), p. 57; Savage (1991), p. 91; Pareles and Romanowski (1983), p. 511; Bockris and Bayley (1999), p. 106.
  96. Jump up ^ Savage (1991), pp. 90–91.
  97. Jump up ^ Gimarc (2005), p. 14.
  98. Jump up ^ Bessman (1993), p. 27.
  99. Jump up ^ Savage (1991), pp. 132–33.
  100. Jump up ^ Deming, Mark. “”The Dictators Go Girl Crazy!” (review)”. Allmusic. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
  101. Jump up ^ Bockris and Bayley (1999), p. 119.
  102. Jump up ^ Savage (1992) claims that “Blank Generation” was written around this time (p. 90). However, the Richard Hell anthology album Spurts includes a live Television recording of the song that he dates “spring 1974.”
  103. Jump up ^ Strongman (2008), p. 96; Savage (1992), p. 130.
  104. Jump up ^ Campbell (2008), p. 362.
  105. Jump up ^ Walsh (2006), p. 27.
  106. Jump up ^ Savage (1991), p. 132.
  107. Jump up ^ Walsh (2006), pp. 15, 24; for Punk, Wayne County, and punk homosexuality, see McNeil and McCain (2006), pp. 272–75; Savage (1992), p. 139; for CBGB’s closing in 2006, see, e.g., Damian Fowler, “Legendary punk club CBGB closes”, BBC News, October 16, 2006. Retrieved on December 11, 2006.
  108. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), p. 137.
  109. Jump up ^ Pareles and Romanowski (1983), p. 249.
  110. Jump up ^ Isler, Scott; Robbins, Ira. “Ramones”. Trouser Press. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
  111. Jump up ^ Adams (2002), p. 369; McNeil and McCain (2006), pp. 233–34.
  112. Jump up ^ “Richard Hell—Another World/Blank Generation/You Gotta Lose”. Discogs. Retrieved 2007-10-23. Buckley (2003), p. 485.
  113. Jump up ^ Walsh (2006), p. 8.
  114. Jump up ^ Heylin (2007), p. 380. Heylin dates the “Hot Wire My Heart” single to 1976.
  115. Jump up ^ Hannon (2009), p. 18. Hannon suggests “Hot Wire My Heart” came out in January 1977 or shortly thereafter.
  116. Jump up ^ Oklahoma Rock. [2]
  117. Jump up ^ Another Hot Oklahoma Night Blog. [3]
  118. Jump up ^ Brady, Karen Chickasha Express Star(2010)[4]
  119. Jump up ^ Unterberger (1999), p. 319.
  120. Jump up ^ Unterberger (1999), p. 426.
  121. Jump up ^ Humphrey, Clark. “Rock Music—Seattle”. HistoryLink.org, May 4, 2000. Retrieved on November 26, 2007.
  122. Jump up ^ Andersen and Jenkins (2001), pp. 2–13.
  123. Jump up ^ Robbins, Ira. “DMZ”. Trouser Press. Retrieved 2007-12-01. Donnelly, Ben. “DMZ”. Dusted. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
  124. Jump up ^ Lovell, Paul (1978). “Interview with Kenne Gizmo”. Boston Groupie News. Retrieved 2007-12-28. Eddy, Chuck (2005-07-15). “Eddytor’s Dozen”. Village Voice. Retrieved 2007-12-28.
  125. Jump up ^ Ross, Alex. “Generation Exit”, The New Yorker, April 25, 1994, pp. 102–104.
  126. Jump up ^ Harvard, Joe, “Willie “Loco” Alexander and the Boom Boom Band”, Boston Rock Storybook. Retrieved November 27, 2007. Archived October 24, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  127. Jump up ^ Jonh Ingham, quoted in Stafford (2006), p. 63.
  128. Jump up ^ Stafford (2006), p. 62.
  129. Jump up ^ Raftery, Brian. “The 30 Essential Punk Albums of 1977”. Spin. October 2007, p. 70.
  130. Jump up ^ Buckley (2003), p. 3; McFarlane (1999), p. 507.
  131. Jump up ^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation (October 2, 2003). “Misfits and Malcontents”. abc.net.au. Retrieved November 1, 2006.
  132. Jump up ^ McFarlane (1999), p. 548.
  133. Jump up ^ Beaumont, Lucy (2007-08-17). “”Great Australian Albums [TV review]” “. The Age. Retrieved 2007-09-22. Gook, Ben (2007-08-16). “”Great Australian Albums The Saints – (I’m) Stranded [DVD review]” “. Mess+Noise. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
  134. Jump up ^ Stafford (2006), pp. 57–76.
  135. ^ Jump up to: a b c McFarlane (1999), p. 507.
  136. Jump up ^ McCaleb (1991), p. 529.
  137. Jump up ^ Unterberger (2002), p. 1337.
  138. Jump up ^ Gimarc (2005), p. 41
  139. Jump up ^ Marcus (1989), p. 8.
  140. Jump up ^ “The Sex Pistols”, Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock ‘n’ Roll (2001). Retrieved on September 11, 2006; Robb (2006), pp. 83–87; Savage (1992), pp. 99–103.
  141. Jump up ^ Gimarc (2005), p. 22; Robb (2006), p. 114; Savage (1992), p. 129.
  142. Jump up ^The Bromley Contingent“, punk77.co.uk. Retrieved on December 3, 2006.
  143. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), pp. 151–152. The quote has been incorrectly ascribed to McLaren (e.g., Laing [1985], pp. 97, 127) and Rotten (e.g., “Punk Music in Britain”, BBC, October 7, 2002), but Savage directly cites the New Musical Express issue in which the quote originally appeared. Robb (2006), p. 148, also describes the NME article in some detail and ascribes the quote to Jones.
  144. Jump up ^ Quoted in Friedlander and Miller (2006), p. 252.
  145. Jump up ^ Quoted in Savage (1992), p. 163.
  146. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), p. 163.
  147. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), pp. 124, 171, 172.
  148. Jump up ^ “Sex Pistols Gig: The Truth”. BBC. 2006-06-27. Retrieved 2007-12-29.
  149. Jump up ^ Taylor (2003), p. 56; McNeil and McCain (2006), pp. 230–233; Robb (2006), pp. 198, 201. Quote: Robb (2006), p. 198.
  150. Jump up ^ Robb (2006), p. 198.
  151. Jump up ^ Taylor (2003), p. 56.
  152. Jump up ^ Loder, Kurt (2003-03-10). “The Clash: Ducking Bottles, Asking Questions”. MTV.com. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
  153. Jump up ^ Taylor (2004), p. 80.
  154. Jump up ^ Laing (1985), p. 13.
  155. Jump up ^ Cummins, Kevin, “Closer to the Birth of a Music Legend”, The Observer, August 8, 2007, p. 12.
  156. Jump up ^ Strongman (2008), pp. 131–132; Savage (1992), p. 216. Strongman describes one of the Sex Pistols’ objectionable requests as “some entourage accommodation”. Savage says they were dropped from the festival following a violent altercation between Sid Vicious, then part of the Sex Pistols’ “entourage”, and journalist Nick Kent at a Pistols gig. It is possible that the organizers were specifically afraid of Vicious’s attendance.
  157. Jump up ^ See, e.g., Marcus (1989), pp. 37, 67.
  158. Jump up ^ “Eater”. Detour Records. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-29.
  159. Jump up ^ Colegrave and Sullivan (2005), p. 111; Gimarc (2005), p. 39; Robb (2006), pp. 217, 224–225.
  160. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), p. 253.
  161. ^ Jump up to: a b Pardo (2004), p. 245.
  162. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), pp. 221, 247.
  163. Jump up ^ Heylin (1993), p. xii.
  164. Jump up ^ Robbins, Ira. “Undertones”. Trouser Press. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-23. Reid, Pat (May 2001). “Alive and Kicking”. Rhythm Magazine. Undertones.net. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
  165. Jump up ^ Griffin, Jeff, “The Damned“, BBC.co.uk. Retrieved on November 19, 2006.
  166. Jump up ^ “Anarchy in the U.K.”. Rolling Stone. 2004-12-09. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
  167. Jump up ^ Lydon (1995), p. 127; Savage (1992), pp. 257–260; Barkham, Patrick, “Ex-Sex Pistol Wants No Future for Swearing”, The Guardian (UK), March 1, 2005. Retrieved on December 17, 2006.
  168. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), pp. 267–275; Lydon (1995), pp. 139–140.
  169. ^ Jump up to: a b Reynolds (2005), p. 211.
  170. Jump up ^ “Punk Rock”, Allmusic. Retrieved on January 7, 2007.
  171. Jump up ^ Rock is sick and living in London : A Report on the Sex Pistols by Charles M. Young
  172. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), p. 437; Mullen, Brendan, and Marc Spitz (May 2001). “Sit on My Face, Stevie Nicks! The Germs, Darby Crash, and the Birth of SoCal Punk”, Spin, p. 102.
  173. Jump up ^ Thompson (2000), p. 391.
  174. Jump up ^ Heylin (2007), p. 376.
  175. Jump up ^ Claude Bessy, quoted in Mullen et al. (2002), p. 67.
  176. Jump up ^ Spitz and Mullen (2001), passim.
  177. Jump up ^ Stark (2006), passim.
  178. Jump up ^ Unterberger (1999), p. 398. For examples of early California punk recordings, see Dangerhouse Records—Part 1 BreakMyFace.com.
  179. ^ Jump up to: a b Keithley (2004), pp. 31–32.
  180. Jump up ^ Keithley (2004), pp. 24, 35, 29–43, 45 et seq.
  181. Jump up ^ Miller, Earl. “File Under Anarchy: A Brief History of Punk Rock’s 30-Year Relationship with Toronto’s Art Press”. International Contemporary Art, December 22, 2005. Retrieved on November 25, 2007
  182. Jump up ^ Worth, Liz. “A Canadian Punk Revival”. Exclaim, June 2007. Retrieved on November 27, 2007; Keithley (2004), pp. 40–41, 87, 89.
  183. Jump up ^ O’Connor, Alan (2002), “Local Scenes and Dangerous Crossroads: Punk and Theories of Cultural Hybridity”, Popular Music 21/2, p. 229; Wagner, Vit (October 15, 2006), “Nazi Dog Set to Snarl Again”, Toronto Star. Retrieved on November 11, 2010.
  184. Jump up ^ Heylin (2007), pp. 491-494.
  185. Jump up ^ Porter (2007), pp. 48–49; Nobahkt (2004), pp. 77–78.
  186. Jump up ^ Smith (2008), pp. 120, 238–239.
  187. Jump up ^ Gimarc (2005), p. 52.
  188. Jump up ^ Gimarc (2005), p. 86.
  189. Jump up ^ Gimarc (2005), p. 92.
  190. Jump up ^ McNeil and McCain (2006), pp. 213–14.
  191. Jump up ^ Boot and Salewicz (1997), p. 99.
  192. Jump up ^ Gimarc (2005), p. 102.
  193. Jump up ^ Adams (2002), pp. 377–380.
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  195. Jump up ^ Raymer, Miles, “Chicago Punk, Vol. 1”, Chicago Reader, November 22, 2007; Austen, Jake, “Savage Operation”, Time Out Chicago, November 22, 2007. Both retrieved December 18, 2007.
  196. Jump up ^ “1977 Club Listings—Boston Punk Scene”. Boston Groupie News. Retrieved 2010-11-15. “1978 Club Listings—Boston Punk Scene”. Boston Groupie News. Retrieved 2010-11-15.
  197. Jump up ^ Andersen and Jenkins (2001), pp. 11–15, 23–26, 32, 35, 39, 41, 49, 59, 60, 68, 84, 91, 93 et seq.
  198. Jump up ^ Simmons, Todd, “The Wednesday the Music Died”, The Villager, October 18–24, 2006. Retrieved on November 27, 2007; Wells (2004), p. 15.
  199. Jump up ^ Dougan (2002), p. 1250.
  200. Jump up ^ Heylin (2007), p. 201
  201. Jump up ^ Leblanc (1999), p. 45.
  202. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), pp. 260, 263–67, 277–79; Laing (1985), pp. 35, 37, 38.
  203. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), p. 286.
  204. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), pp. 296–98; Reynolds (2005), pp. 26–27.
  205. Jump up ^ Colegrave and Sullivan (2005), p. 225.
  206. Jump up ^ Dines, Mike. “No Sir, I Won’t: Reconsidering the Legacy of Crass and Anarcho-punk”. Academia.edu. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
  207. Jump up ^ Reynolds (2005), pp. 365, 378.
  208. Jump up ^ Savage (1991), p. 298.
  209. Jump up ^ Reynolds (2005), pp. 170–72.
  210. Jump up ^ Heylin (2007), p. 304.
  211. Jump up ^ Reynolds (2005), pp. 171–72; Buckley (2003), p. 1179; Strongman (2008), p. 232.
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  213. Jump up ^ Hebdige (1987), p. 107.
  214. Jump up ^ Wells (2004), p. 114.
  215. Jump up ^ Strongman (2008), pp. 182–84.
  216. Jump up ^ Gaar (2002), p. 200.
  217. Jump up ^ The title echoes a lyric from the title track of Patti Smith’s 1975 album Horses
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  221. Jump up ^ Nichols (2003), pp. 44, 54.
  222. Jump up ^ Strahan, Lucinda. “The Star Who Nicked Australia’s Punk Legacy”. The Age, September 3, 2002. Retrieved on November 25, 2007.
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  226. Jump up ^ “Metal Urbain” (in French). Metalorgie. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
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  228. Jump up ^ Gimarc (2005), p. 89.
  229. Jump up ^ Gimarc (2005), p. 97.
  230. Jump up ^ James (2003), pp. 91–93.
  231. Jump up ^ Thompson (2000), p. 445; OM. “French Punk New Wave 1975–1985” Francomix, January 20, 2005. Retrieved on November 25, 2007.
  232. Jump up ^ Robbins, Ira (October 2007). “The Spirit of ’77”, Spin, p. 58.
  233. ^ Jump up to: a b Burns and Van Der Will (1995), p. 313.
  234. Jump up ^ Carlsson, Benke & Johansson, Peter & Wickholm, Pär (2004). Svensk punk 1977-81. Stockholm: Atlas. p. 244.
  235. Jump up ^ Palmer, Robert. “The Pop Life”. The New York Times, September 23, 1987; “Psychedelia in Japan”. Noise: NZ/Japan. Both retrieved on November 25, 2007.
  236. Jump up ^ McGowan and Pessanha (1998), p. 197.
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  238. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), p. 581.
  239. Jump up ^ Schrader, Stuart. “Drogas, Sexo, Y Un Dictador Muerto: 1978 on Vinyl in Spain”, Shit-Fi, June 4, 2008. Retrieved on July 29, 2009.
  240. Jump up ^ Mumenthaler, Samuel “Swiss Pop & Rock Anthology from the Beginnings till 1985: WAVE (3)”, SwissMusic; Debored, Guy. “Kleenex” TrakMarx, October 2006. Both retrieved on November 27, 2007. Archived December 6, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  241. Jump up ^ Blush (2001), p. 18; Reynolds (2006), p. 211; Spitz and Mullen (2001), pp. 217–32; Stark (2006), “Dissolution” (pp. 91–93); see also, “Round-Table Discussion: Hollywood Vanguard vs. Beach Punks!” (Flipsidezine.com article archive).
  242. Jump up ^ Spitz and Mullen (2001), pp. 274–79.
  243. Jump up ^ See also Reynolds (2005), pp. 208–11.
  244. Jump up ^ Dougan, John. Flipper—Biography. Allmusic. Retrieved on November 26, 2007.
  245. Jump up ^ Reynolds (2005), pp. 1–2, 17; Laing (1985), p. 109; Savage (1991), p. 396.
  246. Jump up ^ Laing (1985), p. 108.
  247. Jump up ^ Savage (1992), p. 530.
  248. Jump up ^ “London Calling” hit number eleven. In 1991, after the band had broken up, a rerelease of “Should I Stay or Should I Go” reached number one.
  249. ^ Jump up to: a b Rooksby (2001), p. 94.
  250. Jump up ^ Gray (2005), p. 315.
  251. Jump up ^ Reynolds (2005), p. xvii.
  252. Jump up ^ Quoted in Wells (2004), p. 21.
  253. Jump up ^ See, e.g., Spencer, Neil, and James Brown, “Why the Clash Are Still Rock Titans”, The Observer (UK), October 29, 2006. Retrieved February 28, 2006.
  254. Jump up ^ Namaste (2000), p. 87; Laing (1985), pp. 90–91.
  255. Jump up ^ Gendron (2002), pp. 269–74.
  256. Jump up ^ Strongman (2008), p. 134.
  257. Jump up ^ Laing (1985), pp. 37.
  258. Jump up ^ Wojcik (1995), p. 22.
  259. Jump up ^ Schild, Matt, “Stuck in the Future”, Aversion.com, July 11, 2005. Retrieved on January 21, 2007.
  260. Jump up ^ Reynolds (2005), p. 79.
  261. Jump up ^ “New Wave”, Allmusic. Retrieved on January 17, 2007.
  262. Jump up ^ Reynolds (2005), p. 107.
  263. Jump up ^ Creswell (2006), p. 395.
  264. Jump up ^ Reynolds (2005), p. xxi.
  265. Jump up ^ Reynolds (2005), pp. xxvii, xxix.
  266. Jump up ^ Reynolds (2005), p. xxix.
  267. Jump up ^ See, e.g., Television overview by Mike McGuirk, Rhapsody; Marquee Moon review by Stephen Thomas Erlewine, Allmusic; Television: Marquee Moon (remastered edition) review by Hunter Felt, PopMatters. All retrieved January 15, 2007.
  268. Jump up ^ Buckley (2003), p. 13; Reynolds (2005), pp. 1–2.
  269. Jump up ^ See. e.g., Reynolds (1999), p. 336; Savage (2002), p. 487.
  270. Jump up ^ Harrington (2002), p. 388.
  271. Jump up ^ Potts, Adrian (May 2008), “Big and Ugly”, Vice. Retrieved on December 11, 2010.
  272. Jump up ^ See Thompson (2000), p. viii.
  273. Jump up ^ Sabin (1999), p. 4.
  274. Jump up ^ Blush (2001), pp. 16–17.
  275. ^ Jump up to: a b Andersen and Jenkins (2001).
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  277. ^ Jump up to: a b c Van Dorston, A.S., “A History of Punk”, fastnbulbous.com, January 1990. Retrieved on December 30, 2006.
  278. Jump up ^ Mahon (2008), p. 50.
  279. Jump up ^ Frere-Jones (2004), p. 34; Parker, Chris, “Bad Brains“, CMJ New Music Report, April 3, 2000, p. 30.
  280. Jump up ^ Blush (2001), pp. 12–21.
  281. Jump up ^ Andersen and Jenkins (2001), p. 89; Blush (2001), p. 173; Diamond, Mike. “Beastie Boys Biography”. Sing365.com. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
  282. Jump up ^ Finn, Craig (2011-10-27). “The Faith and Void: the glorious Dischord of 1980s harDCore punk”. The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-08-16.
  283. Jump up ^ Leblanc (1999), p. 59.
  284. Jump up ^ Lamacq, Steve, “x True Til Death x”, BBC Radio 1, 2003. Retrieved on January 14, 2007.
  285. Jump up ^ Weinstein (2000), p. 49.
  286. Jump up ^ “Tales of Terror: Bad Dream or Acid Trip?”. Midtown Monthly. January 1, 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
  287. Jump up ^ Burton, Brent (2011-09-30). “Two classic D.C. hardcore bands empty their vaults”. Washington City Paper. Retrieved 2012-08-16.
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  290. Jump up ^ Lamey and Robbins (1991), p. 230.
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  292. Jump up ^ Reynolds (2005), p. 1.
  293. Jump up ^ Robb (2006), p. 469.
  294. ^ Jump up to: a b Robb (2006), p. 511.
  295. ^ Jump up to: a b Bushell, Garry. “Oi!—The Truth”. garry-bushell.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2010-12-23.
  296. Jump up ^ Quoted in Robb (2006), pp. 469–70.
  297. Jump up ^ Robb (2006), p. 470.
  298. Jump up ^ Bangs, Lester. “If Oi Were a Carpenter”. Village Voice. April 27, 1982.
  299. Jump up ^ Berthier (2004), p. 246.
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  302. Jump up ^ Gimarc (1997), p. 175; Laing (1985), p. 112.
  303. Jump up ^ Wells (2004), p. 35.
  304. Jump up ^ Hardman (2007), p. 5.
  305. Jump up ^ Gosling (2004), p. 170.
  306. Jump up ^ Gosling (2004), pp. 169–70.
  307. Jump up ^ Purcell (2003), pp. 56–57.
  308. Jump up ^ News Items. SOS Records, March 12, 2007; Links Anima Mundi. Both retrieved on November 25, 2007. Archived December 18, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
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  310. Jump up ^ Cooper, Ryan. “The Buzzcocks, Founders of Pop Punk”. About.com. Retrieved on December 16, 2006.
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  312. Jump up ^ Di Bella, Christine. “Blink 182 + Green Day”. PopMatters.com. June 11, 2002. Retrieved on February 4, 2007.
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  315. Jump up ^ Hopper, Justin. “The Ex: 27 Years of Dutch Art-punk”. Pittsburgh City Paper, December 7, 2006. Retrieved on November 14, 2010.
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  317. Jump up ^ Laing (1985), pp. 118, 128.
  318. Jump up ^ Goodlad and Bibby (2007), p. 16.
  319. Jump up ^ Azerrad (2001), passim; for relationship of Hüsker Dü and The Replacements, see pp. 205–6.
  320. Jump up ^ Goldberg, Michael, “Punk Lives”, Rolling Stone, July 18 – August 1, 1985.
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  322. Jump up ^ Friedlander and Miller (2006), pp. 256, 278.
  323. Jump up ^ “Kurt Donald Cobain”, Biography Channel. Retrieved on November 19, 2006.
  324. Jump up ^ Quoted in St. Thomas (2004), p. 94.
  325. Jump up ^ Morgenstein, Mark (2011-09-23). “‘Nevermind,’ Never Again?”. CNN. Retrieved 2011-10-27.
  326. Jump up ^ Greenwald (2003), pp. 9–12.
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  329. Jump up ^ Jackson (2005), pp. 261–62.
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  336. ^ Jump up to: a b c See, e.g., Searchable Database—Gold and Platinum, RIAA. Retrieved on December 2, 2007.
  337. Jump up ^ Fucoco, Christina (November 1, 2000), “Punk Rock Politics Keep Trailing Bad Religion”, liveDaily. Retrieved on September 1, 2008.
  338. ^ Jump up to: a b Gold, Jonathan. “The Year Punk Broke.” SPIN. November 1994.
  339. Jump up ^ Hebdige (1987), p. 111.
  340. Jump up ^ …And Out Come the Wolves was certified gold in January 1996. Let’s Go, Rancid’s previous album, received gold certification in July 2000.
  341. Jump up ^ Eliezer, Christie. “Trying to Take Over the World”. Billboard. September 28, 1996, p. 58; Eliezer, Christie. “The Year in Australia: Parallel Worlds and Artistic Angles”. Billboard. December 27, 1997–January 3, 1998, p. YE-16.
  342. Jump up ^ D’Angelo, Joe, “How Green Day’s Dookie Fertilized A Punk-Rock Revival”, MTV.com, September 15, 2004. Retrieved on December 3, 2007.
  343. Jump up ^ Myers (2006), p. 120.
  344. Jump up ^ Knowles (2003), p. 44.
  345. Jump up ^ Diehl (2007), pp. 2, 145, 227.
  346. Jump up ^ Catucci (2004a), p. 85.
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  349. Jump up ^ Diehl (2003), p. 72.
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  351. Jump up ^ “Goings On About Town: Nightlife”. The New Yorker. November 10, 2003, p. 24.
  352. Jump up ^ Sinagra (2004), p. 791.
  353. Jump up ^ Pierce, Carrie, “Jimmy Eat World: Futures—Interscope Records”, The Battalion, November 24, 2004. Retrieved on December 2, 2007.
  354. Jump up ^ Haenfler (2006), p. 12.
  355. Jump up ^ Kandell, Steve (January 1, 2008). “Album of the Year: Against Me!”. Spin. Retrieved January 31, 2011. Wood, Mikael (August 1, 2007). “Against Me!: ‘New Wave'”. Spin. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
  356. Jump up ^ Aiese, Eric (February 27, 2001). “Living End ‘Rolls On’ with Aussie Punkabilly Sound”. Billboard. Retrieved February 1, 2011.


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 Artikel ini adalah tentang BIOS seperti yang ditemukan di IBM PC yang kompatibel . Untuk konsep umum , lihat Firmware . Untuk kegunaan lain , lihat Bios .

Dalam PC komputer IBM kompatibel, Basic Input / Output System ( BIOS ) , juga dikenal sebagai Sistem BIOS , ROM BIOS atau PC BIOS ( / baɪ.oʊs / ) , adalah standar de facto mendefinisikan antarmuka firmware . [ 1 ] Nama berasal dari Basic input / Output System yang digunakan dalam sistem operasi CP / M pada tahun 1975 . [ 2 ] [ 3 ] perangkat lunak BIOS dibangun ke PC , dan merupakan perangkat lunak pertama dijalankan oleh PC saat diaktifkan .

Tujuan dasar dari BIOS adalah untuk menginisialisasi dan menguji komponen hardware sistem , dan untuk memuat bootloader atau sistem operasi dari perangkat memori massal . BIOS tambahan menyediakan lapisan abstraksi untuk hardware , yaitu cara yang konsisten untuk program aplikasi dan sistem operasi untuk berinteraksi dengan keyboard , layar , dan perangkat input / output lainnya . Variasi dalam perangkat keras sistem tersembunyi oleh BIOS dari program yang menggunakan jasa BIOS bukannya langsung mengakses perangkat keras . Sistem operasi modern mengabaikan lapisan abstraksi yang disediakan oleh BIOS dan mengakses komponen hardware secara langsung .

BIOS asli IBM PC / XT tidak punya user interface interaktif . Pesan kesalahan yang ditampilkan pada layar , atau serangkaian kode suara yang dihasilkan sinyal kesalahan . Opsi pada PC dan XT yang ditetapkan oleh switch dan jumper di papan utama dan kartu perifer . Komputer Wintel – kompatibel modern menyediakan rutin setup, diakses pada sistem power-up oleh urutan tombol tertentu . Pengguna dapat mengkonfigurasi opsi perangkat keras dengan menggunakan keyboard dan layar video.

Software BIOS disimpan pada chip ROM non -volatile pada motherboard . Hal ini secara khusus dirancang untuk bekerja dengan masing-masing model tertentu dari komputer , berinteraksi dengan berbagai perangkat yang membentuk chipset pelengkap dari sistem . Dalam sistem komputer modern , isi BIOS disimpan pada chip memori flash sehingga isi dapat ditulis ulang tanpa mengeluarkan chip dari motherboard . Hal ini memungkinkan perangkat lunak BIOS untuk dengan mudah ditingkatkan untuk menambahkan fitur baru atau memperbaiki bug , tapi bisa membuat komputer rentan terhadap rootkit BIOS .

MS – DOS ( PC DOS ) , yang merupakan sistem operasi PC yang dominan dari awal 1980-an sampai pertengahan 1990-an , mengandalkan layanan BIOS untuk fungsi disk, keyboard, dan tampilan teks . MS Windows NT , Linux , dan sistem operasi lain yang dilindungi modus pada umumnya tidak menggunakannya setelah pemuatan .

Teknologi BIOS sedang dalam proses transisi menuju Unified Extensible Firmware Interface ( UEFI ) sejak tahun 2010 . [ 4 ]

1 Terminologi
2 Proses booting BIOS
2.1 perangkat Boot
2.2 ekstensi BIOS
2.3 lingkungan Boot
3 layanan sistem operasi
4 komponen BIOS
5 User interface
6 Chips
7 Flashing BIOS
8 Overclocking
9 kerentanan chip BIOS
9.1 Serangan Virus
10 BIOS Boot Specification
11 Mengubah peran BIOS
11.1 SLIC
11.2 microcode Reprogrammable
12 Bisnis BIOS
12.1 Perbandingan
13 Lihat juga
14 Referensi
15 Bacaan lebih lanjut
16 Pranala luar
16.1 Spesifikasi


Istilah BIOS ( Basic Input / Output System ) diciptakan oleh Gary Kildall [ 5 ] dan pertama kali muncul dalam sistem operasi CP / M tahun 1975 , [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] menjelaskan bagian – mesin tertentu CP / M diload ketika saat booting yang interface langsung dengan perangkat keras . [ 3 ] ( sebuah mesin CP / M biasanya memiliki boot loader hanya sederhana dalam ROM nya . )
Versi MS – DOS atau PC DOS berisi sebuah file bernama dengan berbagai ” IO.SYS ” , ” IBMBIO.COM ” , ” IBMBIO.SYS ” , atau ” DRBIOS.SYS “; file ini dikenal sebagai ” DOS BIOS ” ( alias ” DOS I / O system” ) dan berisi tingkat rendah hardware – spesifik bagian dari sistem operasi . Bersama dengan mendasari hardware khusus , tetapi sistem -independen operasi ” Sistem BIOS ” , yang berada di ROM , itu merupakan analog dengan ” CP / M BIOS ” .
Dalam jenis lain dari komputer , istilah booting memantau , boot loader , dan boot ROM yang digunakan sebagai pengganti . Beberapa komputer Sun dan berbasis PowerPC menggunakan Open Firmware untuk tujuan ini .
Dengan diperkenalkannya PS / 2 mesin , IBM membagi Sistem BIOS ke modus real dan protected mode bagian. Bagian modus real dimaksudkan untuk menyediakan kompatibilitas ke belakang dengan sistem operasi yang ada seperti DOS , dan karenanya bernama ” CBIOS ” (untuk Kompatibilitas BIOS ) , sedangkan ” ABIOS ” ( for Advanced BIOS ) memberikan antarmuka baru yang khusus cocok untuk multitaskinsistem operasi seperti OS / 2

Ada beberaa alternatif untuk fungsionalitas dari ” Legacy BIOS ” di dunia x86 : Extensible Firmware Interface, Open Firmware ( digunakan pada OLPC XO – 1 ) , dan Coreboot .
Proses booting BIOS
Ketika prosesor x86 -reset , itu beban program counter dengan alamat tetap di dekat bagian atas dari 1 megabyte modus real address space . Alamat memori BIOS terletak sedemikian rupa sehingga akan dijalankan ketika komputer pertama dimulai . Sebuah instruksi jump kemudian mengarahkan prosesor untuk mulai mengeksekusi kode di BIOS . Jika sistem baru saja dinyalakan atau tombol reset ditekan ( ” cold boot” ) , power-on self-test ( POST ) penuh dijalankan . Jika Ctrl + Alt + Delete dimulai ( ” warm boot” ) , nilai bendera khusus terdeteksi dalam memori nonvolatile ( NVRAM ) dan BIOS tidak menjalankan POST . Ini menghemat waktu jika tidak digunakan untuk mendeteksi dan menguji semua memori . NVRAM adalah dalam real-time clock ( RTC ) .
Power-on self-test tes , mengidentifikasi , dan menginisialisasi perangkat sistem seperti CPU , RAM , mengganggu dan DMA controller dan bagian lain dari chipset , kartu tampilan video, keyboard, hard disk drive, disk drive optik dan perangkat keras dasar lainnya . BIOS kemudian menempatkan software boot loader yang diadakan pada perangkat penyimpanan yang ditunjuk sebagai ‘ perangkat boot ‘ , seperti hard disk, floppy disk , CD , atau DVD , dan beban dan mengeksekusi perangkat lunak tersebut, memberikan kendali PC . [ 8 ] proses ini dikenal sebagai boot , atau boot up , yang merupakan kependekan dari ” bootstrap ” .
perangkat booting
BIOS memilih perangkat booting kandidat menggunakan informasi yang dikumpulkan oleh POST dan informasi konfigurasi dari EEPROM , RAM CMOS atau, dalam PC awal , DIP switch . ROM Option juga dapat mempengaruhi atau menggantikan proses boot ditentukan oleh motherboard BIOS ROM . BIOS akan memeriksa masing-masing perangkat untuk melihat apakah bootable . Untuk disk drive atau perangkat yang logis mengemulasi disk drive , seperti USB Flash drive atau mungkin tape drive , untuk melakukan ini memeriksa upaya BIOS untuk memuat
 ektor pertama ( boot sector ) dari disk ke alamat memori 0x007C00 , dan memeriksa tanda tangan boot sector 0x55 0xAA dalam dua byte terakhir dari ( 512 byte panjang ) sektor . Jika sektor ini tidak dapat dibaca ( karena disk hilang atau kosong , atau karena kegagalan perangkat keras ) , atau jika sektor ini tidak berakhir dengan tanda tangan boot, BIOS menganggap disk unbootable dan hasil untuk memeriksa perangkat berikutnya . Perangkat lain seperti upaya adaptor jaringan booting dengan prosedur yang didefinisikan oleh option ROM (atau setara diintegrasikan ke dalam motherboard BIOS ROM ) . BIOS hasil untuk menguji setiap perangkat berurutan sampai perangkat bootable ditemukan , pada saat transfer BIOS kontrol untuk sektor sarat dengan instruksi jump ke byte pertama pada alamat 0x007C00 ( 1 KiB bawah 32 KiB mark ) .
Perilaku jika BIOS tidak menemukan perangkat bootable bervariasi sebagai komputer pribadi yang dikembangkan . The original IBM PC dan XT memiliki Microsoft Cassette BASIC di ROM , dan jika tidak ada perangkat bootable ditemukan , ROM BASIC dimulai . Oleh karena itu , pembatasan kegagalan hardware , PC IBM XT asli atau tidak akan pernah gagal untuk boot , baik ke BASIC atau dari disk. Salah satu model PC yang tersedia tanpa disk drive , perekam kaset bisa terpasang melalui port kaset di bagian belakang , untuk membuka dan menyimpan program BASIC ke tape . Karena beberapa program yang digunakan BASIC di ROM , pembuat PC clone meninggalkannya keluar , sebuah komputer yang gagal untuk boot dari disk akan menampilkan “No ROM BASIC ” dan berhenti . Kemudian komputer akan menampilkan pesan seperti ” Tidak ada bootable disk yang ditemukan . ” BIOS yang modern mungkin menampilkan apa-apa atau mungkin secara otomatis memasukkan utilitas konfigurasi BIOS saat proses booting gagal .
ara historis , BIOS akan mencoba untuk boot dari floppy drive pertama dan kedua disk keras . CD atau DVD booting merupakan perpanjangan dari ini. Dengan El Torito media optik standar boot, drive optik sebenarnya mengemulasi ” floppy disk 3.5 high-density ke BIOS untuk keperluan booting . Disk optik adalah kasus khusus , karena level terendah dari organisasi data biasanya tinggi tingkat yang cukup sistem file ( misalnya ISO 9660 untuk CD – ROM ) . untuk membaca ” sektor pertama ” dari CD – ROM atau DVD – ROM bukan operasi hanya didefinisikan . kompleksitas medium membuat sulit untuk menulis program boot berguna dalam satu sektor . Oleh karena itu , media booting optik menggunakan standar El Torito , yang menentukan cara untuk disk optik untuk berisi gambar dari high-density ( ” 1,44 MB ” ) floppy disk dan drive untuk menyediakan akses ke disk image ini dengan cara yang sederhana yang mengemulasi operasi floppy disk drive Oleh karena itu , CD – ROM drive boot seperti ditiru floppy disk drive ; . floppy disk virtual bootable kemudian berisi perangkat lunak yang menyediakan akses ke media optik dalam format aslinya .

Sebuah fitur sedikit diketahui asli IBM BIOS versi adalah bahwa sebelum memulai proses boot biasa mereka akan mencoba untuk memuat sebuah program melalui port keyboard . Hal ini dimaksudkan untuk pengujian pabrik atau tujuan diagnostik . Ini adalah utilitas yang terbatas di luar fasilitas pabrik atau perbaikan . [ 9 ]
ekstensi BIOS

Dalam PC IBM dan AT , kartu perifer seperti pengendali hard-drive dan menampilkan video adapter memiliki ROM opsi perpanjangan BIOS mereka sendiri , yang menyediakan fungsionalitas tambahan . Kode di ekstensi ini berjalan sebelum sistem operasi dimuat dari mass storage . ROM ini dapat menguji dan menginisialisasi hardware , menambahkan layanan BIOS , atau mengganti jasa BIOS dengan versi mereka sendiri layanan tersebut . Misalnya, controller SCSI biasanya memiliki ekstensi ROM BIOS yang menambahkan dukungan untuk hard drive yang terhubung melalui controller itu. Beberapa kartu video memiliki ROM ekstensi yang menggantikan layanan video dari BIOS motherboard dengan layanan video mereka sendiri . ROM BIOS ekstensi mendapatkan kontrol total dari mesin, sehingga mereka tidak akan pernah kembali kontrol ke BIOS yang dipanggil mereka . Perpanjangan ROM bisa pada prinsipnya mengandung keseluruhan sistem operasi atau program aplikasi , atau bisa melaksanakan proses boot sama sekali berbeda seperti booting dari jaringan. Pengoperasian sistem komputer IBM – kompatibel dapat benar-benar berubah dengan menghapus atau memasukkan kartu adapter ( atau chip ROM ) .

Sebuah sistem komputer dapat berisi beberapa chip BIOS . Motherboard BIOS biasanya berisi kode untuk mengakses komponen perangkat keras yang diperlukan untuk bootstrap sistem , seperti keyboard, display , dan penyimpanan . Selain itu, plug-in kartu adapter seperti SCSI , RAID papan , kartu antarmuka jaringan , dan video yang sering termasuk BIOS mereka sendiri ( misalnya Video BIOS ) , melengkapi atau mengganti sistem kode BIOS untuk komponen tertentu . Bahkan perangkat yang dibangun dalam motherboard dapat berperilaku dengan cara ini , ROM opsi mereka dapat disimpan sebagai kode terpisah pada BIOS chip flash utama , dan ditingkatkan baik bersama-sama dengan , atau terpisah dari , BIOS utama.

Sebuah add -in card membutuhkan pilihan ROM jika perlu digunakan sebelum sistem operasi dapat dimuat ( biasanya ini berarti diperlukan dalam proses bootstrap ) , dan tidak didukung oleh BIOS utama.

Setelah menyelesaikan POST , scan motherboard BIOS untuk ROM ekstensi di daerah “daerah memori atas ” ruang dan berjalan setiap ROM ditemukan , dalam rangka . Untuk menemukan ISA option ROM memori – dipetakan selama proses boot, implementasi BIOS memindai modus real address space dari 0x0C0000 ke 0x0F0000 pada 2 batas KiB, mencari tanda tangan ROM : 0x55 diikuti oleh 0xAA . Dalam ekspansi ROM yang valid , tanda tangan ini diikuti oleh satu byte yang menunjukkan jumlah blok 512-byte itu menempati dalam memori nyata . Byte berikutnya berisi offset menggambarkan entry point pilihan ROM . Sebuah checksum dari jumlah yang ditentukan blok 512 – byte dihitung , dan jika ROM memiliki checksum yang valid transfer BIOS mengontrol ke alamat entri yang ditentukan . Pada titik ini , kode ekspansi ROM mengambil alih , menggunakan layanan BIOS untuk meregister interrupt vector yang digunakan oleh aplikasi setelah booting , untuk menyediakan antarmuka konfigurasi pengguna , atau untuk menampilkan informasi diagnostik .

Ada banyak metode dan utilitas untuk memeriksa isi dari berbagai BIOS dan ekspansi ROM motherboard , seperti Microsoft DEBUG atau dd Unix .
lingkungan Boot

Lingkungan untuk program boot sangat sederhana : CPU dalam modus nyata dan tujuan umum dan segmen register tidak terdefinisi . Semua layanan BIOS yang tersedia, dan memori bawah alamat 0x000500 berisi tabel vektor interupsi dan area data BIOS 256 – byte , tapi program boot harus mengatur tumpukan sendiri ( atau setidaknya MS – DOS 6 bertindak seperti itu harus) . Semua memori di atas dan alamat 0x000500 dapat digunakan oleh program boot; bahkan mungkin menimpa dirinya . BIOS menginisialisasi blok milik RAM sistem dengan berbagai parameter diinisialisasi selama POST . Vektor interupsi sesuai dengan interupsi BIOS telah diatur untuk menunjuk pada titik-titik entri yang sesuai di BIOS .
Layanan sistem operasi

The BIOS ROM disesuaikan untuk perangkat keras produsen tertentu , yang memungkinkan layanan tingkat rendah ( seperti membaca atau menulis keystroke sektor data ke disket ) yang akan diberikan dalam cara standar untuk sistem operasi . Sebagai contoh, sebuah PC IBM mungkin memiliki baik monokrom atau adaptor layar warna ( menggunakan alamat memori tampilan yang berbeda dan hardware ) , tetapi tunggal , standar , sistem BIOS panggilan dapat dipanggil untuk menampilkan karakter pada posisi tertentu pada layar di mode teks .

BIOS menyediakan perpustakaan kecil fungsi input / output dasar untuk mengoperasikan periferal ( seperti keyboard , teks dan grafis dasar fungsi layar dan sebagainya ) . Bila menggunakan MS – DOS , layanan BIOS dapat diakses oleh program aplikasi ( atau MS – DOS ) dengan mengeksekusi instruksi 13H interupsi INT untuk mengakses sektor disk, atau salah satu dari sejumlah lainnya BIOS interrupt didokumentasikan panggilan untuk mengakses tampilan video , keyboard, kaset , dan perangkat lainnya .

Sistem operasi dan perangkat lunak eksekutif , yang dirancang untuk menggantikan fungsi ini firmware dasar, menyediakan antarmuka software pengganti untuk aplikasi . Ini dimulai bahkan pada tahun 1980 di bawah MS – DOS , ketika programmer mengamati bahwa menggunakan layanan video BIOS untuk tampilan grafis sangat lambat . Untuk meningkatkan kecepatan output layar , banyak program dilewati BIOS dan diprogram perangkat keras tampilan video secara langsung . Karena BIOS AT – kompatibel berlari dalam modus real Intel , sistem operasi pada ‘286 dan kemudian prosesor diperlukan driver perangkat hardware yang kompatibel dengan operasi modus terproteksi untuk menggantikan layanan BIOS . Pada komputer pribadi modern BIOS yang digunakan hanya selama booting dan loading awal dari perangkat lunak sistem . Sebelum layar grafis pertama sistem operasi ditampilkan , input dan output biasanya ditangani melalui BIOS . Sebuah menu boot seperti menu tekstual Windows yang memungkinkan seseorang untuk memilih sistem operasi untuk boot atau boot ke Safe Mode atau menggunakan konfigurasi yang baik yang terakhir diketahui , ditampilkan dan menerima input keyboard melalui BIOS .
komponen BIOS

Dalam sistem Intel , BIOS mungkin berisi komponen seperti Memory Reference Code ( MRC ) , yang bertanggung jawab untuk menangani timing memori dan pengaturan perangkat keras yang berhubungan [ 10 ] : . 8 [ 11 ]
User interface

Secara historis BIOS di IBM PC dan XT tidak memiliki built -in user interface . BIOS versi di PC sebelumnya ( XT – kelas ) yang bukan perangkat lunak dikonfigurasi , pengguna mengatur opsi melalui DIP switch pada motherboard . Kemudian komputer , termasuk semua IBM – kompatibel dengan 80286 CPU , memiliki CMOS chip RAM yang didukung baterai yang diadakan pengaturan BIOS . [ 12 ] Pengaturan ini , seperti jenis video adaptor , ukuran memori , dan parameter hard-disk , hanya bisa dikonfigurasi dengan menjalankan program konfigurasi dari disk , tidak dibangun ke dalam ROM . Sebuah khusus ” referensi disket ” itu dimasukkan ke dalam sebuah IBM AT untuk mengkonfigurasi pengaturan seperti ukuran memori . Versi BIOS awal tidak memiliki password atau boot- perangkat pilihan seleksi. BIOS adalah keras-kode untuk boot dari floppy drive pertama , atau , jika itu gagal , hard disk pertama . Kontrol akses pada awal AT – kelas mesin adalah dengan switch kunci tombol fisik ( yang tidak sulit untuk mengalahkan jika kasus komputer bisa dibuka ) . Siapa pun yang bisa beralih pada komputer bisa boot . [ Rujukan? ]
Award BIOS Setup utilitas pada PC standar

Sebuah BIOS modern memiliki antarmuka pengguna berbasis menu ( UI ) diakses dengan menekan tombol tertentu pada keyboard ketika PC dimulai . Biasanya kunci diiklankan untuk waktu yang singkat selama startup awal , misalnya ” Tekan F1 untuk masuk setup CMOS ” . Kunci sebenarnya tergantung pada hardware seseorang . Dalam BIOS UI , pengguna dapat:

mengkonfigurasi hardware
mengatur jam sistem
mengaktifkan atau menonaktifkan komponen sistem
memilih perangkat perangkat booting potensial
mengatur berbagai prompt password, seperti password untuk mengamankan akses ke fungsi antarmuka pengguna BIOS itu sendiri dan mencegah pengguna berbahaya dari booting sistem dari perangkat periferal yang tidak sah

PhoenixBIOS D686 . Chip BIOS ini bertempat di paket PLCC dalam soket .

The original IBM PC BIOS ( dan kaset BASIC ) disimpan pada topeng – diprogram read-only memory ( ROM ) chips di soket pada motherboard . ROM bisa diganti , tapi tidak diubah , oleh pengguna . Untuk memungkinkan untuk update , banyak komputer yang kompatibel menggunakan perangkat memori re – programmable seperti EEPROM dan perangkat memori flash kemudian. Menurut Robert Braver , presiden dari produsen BIOS Micro Firmware , Flash BIOS chip menjadi umum sekitar tahun 1995 karena PROM elektrik bisa dihapus ( EEPROM ) chip lebih murah dan lebih mudah untuk program dari standar ultraviolet PROM dihapus ( EPROM ) chip . Flash chip yang diprogram ( dan re – diprogram ) di-sirkuit , sedangkan chip EPROM perlu dihapus dari motherboard untuk re – programming . [ 13 ] BIOS versi upgrade untuk mengambil keuntungan dari versi terbaru dari perangkat keras dan untuk memperbaiki bug di sebelumnya revisi BIOS . [ 14 ]

Dimulai dengan IBM AT , PC mendukung jam hardware settable melalui BIOS . Itu sedikit abad yang memungkinkan untuk secara manual mengubah abad ketika tahun 2000 terjadi . Kebanyakan revisi BIOS diciptakan pada tahun 1995 dan hampir semua revisi BIOS pada tahun 1997 didukung tahun 2000 dengan menetapkan bit abad secara otomatis ketika jam digulung lewat tengah malam 31 ​​Desember 1999. [ 15 ]

Flash chip pertama melekat pada bus ISA . Mulai tahun 1997 , flash BIOS pindah ke bus LPC , pengganti fungsional untuk ISA , menyusul penerapan standar baru yang dikenal sebagai ” hub firmware ” ( FWH ) . Pada tahun 2006 , sistem pertama yang mendukung Serial Peripheral Interface ( SPI ) muncul , dan memori flash BIOS pindah lagi . [ Rujukan? ]

Ukuran BIOS , dan kapasitas ROM , EEPROM dan media lainnya itu dapat disimpan pada , telah meningkat dari waktu ke waktu sebagai fitur baru telah ditambahkan ke kode , versi BIOS sekarang ada dengan ukuran hingga 16 megabyte . Beberapa motherboard modern termasuk bahkan lebih besar NAND IC memori flash on board yang mampu menyimpan seluruh sistem operasi kompak , seperti beberapa distro Linux . Sebagai contoh, beberapa motherboard ASUS termasuk SplashTop Linux tertanam ke NAND IC memori flash mereka . [ 16 ]

Tipe lain dari firmware chip yang ditemukan pada IBM PC dan yang kompatibel awal . Dalam PC dan AT , antarmuka keyboard yang dikendalikan oleh mikrokontroler dengan memori yang dapat diprogram sendiri . Pada IBM AT , ini adalah perangkat socketed 40 pin . Beberapa produsen menggunakan versi EPROM chip ini yang menyerupai EPROM . Di AT , kontroler ini juga ditugaskan fungsi A20 gerbang untuk mengelola memori di atas kisaran 1 megabyte , kadang-kadang upgrade ini ” Keyboard BIOS ” itu perlu untuk mengambil keuntungan dari software yang bisa menggunakan memori atas [ rujukan? ] .
Flashing BIOS

Pada PC modern BIOS disimpan dalam memori ditulis ulang , yang memungkinkan isi diganti atau ‘ ditulis ulang ‘ . Ini menulis ulang isi kadang-kadang disebut berkedip . Hal ini dapat dilakukan dengan program khusus , biasanya disediakan oleh produsen sistem , atau POST , dengan gambar BIOS dalam hard drive atau USB flash drive . Sebuah file yang berisi konten tersebut kadang-kadang disebut ‘ BIOS image’ . Sebuah BIOS mungkin reflashed untuk meng-upgrade ke versi yang lebih baru untuk memperbaiki bug atau memberikan peningkatan kinerja atau untuk mendukung perangkat keras baru , atau operasi reflashing mungkin diperlukan untuk memperbaiki BIOS yang rusak .

Beberapa chip BIOS memungkinkan overclocking , suatu tindakan di mana CPU disesuaikan dengan tingkat clock yang lebih tinggi dari yang telah ditetapkan pabrik . Overclocking dapat, bagaimanapun , serius kompromi keandalan sistem dalam komputer kurang didinginkan dan umumnya memperpendek umur komponen . Overclocking , salah dilakukan , juga dapat menyebabkan komponen terlalu panas sangat cepat sehingga mereka menghancurkan diri mereka sendiri .
Kerentanan chip BIOS
An American Megatrends BIOS menunjukkan ” Intel CPU uCode Error Loading ” setelah usaha yang gagal untuk meng-upload patch microcode ke dalam CPU .

Chip EEPROM adalah menguntungkan karena mereka dapat dengan mudah diperbarui oleh pengguna, produsen hardware seringkali mengeluarkan update BIOS untuk meng-upgrade produk mereka , meningkatkan kompatibilitas dan menghapus bug . Namun, keunggulan ini memiliki risiko bahwa update BIOS tidak benar dieksekusi atau dibatalkan bisa membuat komputer atau perangkat tidak dapat digunakan . Untuk menghindari situasi ini , BIOS yang lebih baru menggunakan “boot block ” , sebuah bagian dari BIOS yang berjalan pertama dan harus diperbarui secara terpisah . Kode ini memverifikasi jika seluruh BIOS masih utuh ( menggunakan checksum hash atau metode lain ) sebelum mentransfer kontrol untuk itu . Jika boot block mendeteksi korupsi di BIOS utama , biasanya akan memperingatkan pengguna bahwa proses pemulihan harus diprakarsai oleh boot dari removable media ( floppy , CD atau memori USB ) sehingga pengguna dapat mencoba flashing BIOS lagi . Beberapa motherboard memiliki BIOS cadangan ( kadang-kadang disebut sebagai DualBIOS papan ) untuk pulih dari korupsi BIOS .
serangan virus

Setidaknya ada empat virus serangan BIOS diketahui, dua di antaranya adalah untuk tujuan demonstrasi . Yang pertama ditemukan di alam liar adalah Mebromi , menargetkan pengguna Cina .
Artikel utama: CIH ( virus komputer )

Virus pertama BIOS adalah CIH , yang namanya sesuai dengan inisial penciptanya , Chen Ing Hau . CIH juga disebut ” Chernobyl Virus ” , karena tanggal muatannya adalah 1999/04/26 , ulang tahun ke-13 dari kecelakaan Chernobyl .

CIH muncul pada pertengahan tahun 1998 dan menjadi aktif pada bulan April 1999 . Itu mampu menghapus Flash ROM BIOS konten . Seringkali , komputer yang terinfeksi tidak bisa lagi boot, dan orang-orang harus menghapus flash ROM IC dari motherboard dan memprogram ulang itu . CIH menargetkan Intel i430TX chipset motherboard kemudian – luas dan mengambil keuntungan dari fakta bahwa sistem operasi Windows 9x , juga tersebar luas pada saat itu , memungkinkan akses hardware langsung ke semua program .
Terpisah BIOS Chip

Sistem modern tidak rentan terhadap CIH karena berbagai chipset yang digunakan yang tidak kompatibel dengan chipset Intel i430TX , dan juga Flash ROM lainnya IC jenis . Ada juga perlindungan ekstra dari penulisan ulang BIOS disengaja dalam bentuk blok booting yang dilindungi dari menimpa disengaja atau sistem BIOS yang dilengkapi dual dan quad yang mungkin , dalam hal kecelakaan , menggunakan BIOS cadangan . Juga , semua sistem operasi modern seperti FreeBSD , Linux , OS X , Windows NT berbasis Windows OS seperti Windows 2000 , Windows XP dan yang lebih baru , tidak mengizinkan program user-mode untuk memiliki akses hardware langsung . Akibatnya , pada 2008 , CIH telah menjadi dasarnya tidak berbahaya , paling buruk menyebabkan jengkel dengan menginfeksi file executable dan dari perangkat lunak antivirus . Virus BIOS lainnya tetap mungkin, namun , [ 17 ] karena sebagian besar pengguna rumahan Windows tanpa Windows Vista / 7 UAC menjalankan semua aplikasi dengan hak akses administratif , virus CIH – seperti modern yang pada prinsipnya masih mendapatkan akses ke perangkat keras tanpa terlebih dahulu menggunakan mengeksploitasi . Sistem operasi OpenBSD mencegah semua pengguna memiliki akses dari ini dan patch grsecurity untuk kernel linux juga mencegah akses hardware langsung ini secara default , perbedaan menjadi penyerang membutuhkan tingkat kernel jauh lebih sulit mengeksploitasi atau reboot mesin .

Kedua virus BIOS adalah teknik yang disajikan oleh John Heasman , konsultan keamanan utama untuk berbasis di Inggris Next-Generation Security Software . Pada tahun 2006 , di Hat Security Conference Black, ia menunjukkan bagaimana untuk mengangkat hak dan membaca memori fisik , menggunakan prosedur berbahaya yang menggantikan fungsi ACPI yang normal disimpan dalam memori flash .

Virus BIOS ketiga adalah teknik yang disebut ” infeksi BIOS Persistent . ” Ternyata pada tahun 2009 pada Konferensi Keamanan CanSecWest di Vancouver , dan pada Konferensi Keamanan SyScan di Singapura . Para peneliti Anibal Sacco [ 18 ] dan Alfredo Ortega , dari Core Security Technologies, menunjukkan bagaimana untuk memasukkan kode berbahaya ke dalam rutinitas dekompresi di BIOS , memungkinkan untuk kontrol hampir penuh dari PC saat start-up , bahkan sebelum sistem operasi di-boot .

Proof-of – konsep tidak mengeksploitasi cacat dalam pelaksanaan BIOS , tetapi hanya melibatkan prosedur flashing BIOS normal. Dengan demikian , memerlukan akses fisik ke mesin , atau bagi pengguna untuk menjadi root . Meskipun persyaratan ini , Ortega menggarisbawahi implikasi mendalam penemuan dan Sacco ini : ” Kita bisa menambal sopir untuk menjatuhkan rootkit sepenuhnya bekerja . Kami bahkan memiliki kode kecil yang dapat menghapus atau menonaktifkan antivirus . ” [ 19 ]

Mebromi adalah sebuah trojan yang menargetkan komputer dengan AwardBIOS , Microsoft Windows, dan perangkat lunak antivirus dari dua perusahaan Cina : . Rising Antivirus dan Jiangmin KV Antivirus [ 20 ] [ 21 ] [ 22 ] Mebromi menginstal rootkit yang menginfeksi master boot record .

Dalam sebuah wawancara bulan Desember 2013 dengan CBS 60 Minutes , Deborah Plunkett , Direktur Cyber ​​Pertahanan untuk Administrasi Keamanan Nasional AS menyatakan bahwa NSA analis telah menemukan dan menggagalkan kemungkinan serangan BIOS oleh negara-bangsa asing . Serangan pada komputer di dunia bisa diduga ” benar-benar diturunkan ekonomi AS . ” Segmen ini lebih lanjut mengutip pakar keamanan cyber anonim penjelasan tentang operasi sebagai menuduh plot dikandung di Cina . [ 23 ] Sebuah artikel di The Guardian kemudian meragukan kemungkinan ancaman tersebut , mengutip Berkeley peneliti -ilmu komputer Nicholas Weaver , Matt [ 24 ] Blaze , seorang profesor ilmu komputer dan informasi di University of Pennsylvania , dan cybersecurity ahli Robert David Graham dalam analisis klaim NSA .
BIOS Boot Specification

Jika expansion ROM ingin merubah cara boot sistem (seperti dari perangkat jaringan atau SCSI adapter dimana BIOS tidak memiliki drivernya ) , dapat menggunakan BIOS Boot Specification ( BBS ) API untuk mendaftarkan kemampuannya untuk melakukan jadi . Sesaat setelah expansion ROM sudah teregister menggunakan BBS API , pengguna dapat memilih di antara pilihan booting dari user interface BIOS . Inilah sebabnya mengapa kebanyakan BBS compliant implementasi PC BIOS tidak akan mengizinkan pengguna untuk memasukkan user interface BIOS sampai expansion ROM sudah selesai melaksanakan dan mendaftarkan diri dengan BBS API . [ Rujukan? ] Spesifikasi dapat didownload dari website ACPICA . Judul resmi BIOS Boot Specification ( Versi 1.01 , 11 Januari 1996 ) dan tersedia di sini : . [ 25 ]
Mengubah peran BIOS

Jasa BIOS tidak digunakan oleh sistem operasi multitasking GUI modern setelah mereka awalnya beban , sehingga pentingnya bagian utama dari BIOS sangat berkurang dari apa itu awalnya . Keterbatasan BIOS AT – kompatibel adalah mode 16 – bit prosesor , 1 MByte ruang dialamatkan dan ketergantungan pada PC AT hardware .

Beberapa sistem operasi , misalnya MS – DOS , bergantung pada BIOS untuk melaksanakan sebagian tugas input / output dalam PC . [ 26 ] Karena BIOS masih berjalan di 16 – bit mode real , memanggil layanan BIOS secara langsung tidak efisien untuk dilindungi sistem operasi modus . Sejumlah besar , server yang lebih kuat dan workstation menggunakan platform – independent Open Firmware (IEEE-1275) berdasarkan pada bahasa pemrograman Forth , melainkan disertakan dengan komputer Sun SPARC , IBM RS/6000 line , dan sistem PowerPC lain seperti motherboard CHRP . Sistem berbasis x86 Kemudian komputer pribadi operasi , seperti Windows NT , gunakan , driver mereka sendiri asli , hal ini membuat lebih mudah untuk memperluas dukungan untuk hardware baru .

Kemudian BIOS mengambil fungsi yang lebih kompleks , dengan cara interface seperti ACPI , fungsi-fungsi ini meliputi manajemen daya , hot swapping , manajemen termal .

Seperti tahun 2011 , BIOS sedang digantikan oleh yang lebih kompleks Extensible Firmware Interface ( EFI ) di banyak mesin-mesin baru . EFI adalah spesifikasi yang menggantikan antarmuka runtime warisan BIOS . Awalnya ditulis untuk arsitektur Itanium , EFI sekarang tersedia untuk x86 dan x86 – 64 platform , pengembangan spesifikasi didorong oleh Bersatu EFI Forum , industri Special Interest Group . EFI booting telah didukung dalam versi Microsoft Windows hanya mendukung GPT , [ 27 ] kernel Linux 2.6.1 dan kemudian, dan Mac OS X pada Mac berbasis Intel . [ 28 ] Namun , perbedaan antara BIOS dan EFI jarang dibuat di terminologi oleh pengguna komputer rata-rata , membuat BIOS istilah -menangkap semua untuk kedua sistem .

Beberapa BIOS mengandung ” SLIC ” ( software tabel deskripsi lisensi ) , sebuah tanda tangan digital ditempatkan di dalam BIOS oleh pabrikan , misalnya Dell . ( Hal ini sering disebut dengan santai tato BIOS atau BIOS bertato . ) SLIC ini dimasukkan dalam tabel ACPI dan tidak berisi kode aktif . Produsen komputer yang mendistribusikan versi OEM dari Microsoft Windows dan perangkat lunak aplikasi Microsoft dapat menggunakan SLIC untuk otentikasi lisensi ke disk Instalasi OEM Windows dan / atau pemulihan sistem disc berisi perangkat lunak Windows. Sistem memiliki SLIC dapat preactivated dengan kunci produk OEM , dan mereka memverifikasi XML diformat sertifikat OEM terhadap SLIC di BIOS sebagai sarana self- mengaktifkan (lihat Sistem Terkunci Pra ) . Jika pengguna melakukan instalasi baru Windows , mereka akan perlu memiliki kepemilikan dari kedua kunci OEM dan sertifikat digital untuk SLIC mereka dalam rangka untuk memotong aktivasi , dalam praktek ini sangat tidak mungkin dan karenanya satu-satunya cara nyata ini dapat dicapai jika pengguna melakukan restore menggunakan gambar pra – disesuaikan disediakan oleh OEM . Celah untuk distribusi Windows non-asli biasanya mengedit SLIC atau meniru itu dalam rangka untuk memotong aktivasi Windows.
microcode reprogrammable

Prosesor Intel Terbaru ( P6 dan P7 ) memiliki microcode reprogrammable . BIOS mungkin berisi patch untuk kode prosesor untuk memungkinkan kesalahan dalam kode prosesor awal untuk diperbaiki , memperbarui prosesor microcode setiap kali sistem dinyalakan . Jika tidak , prosesor swap yang mahal akan diperlukan . [ 29 ] Sebagai contoh, bug Pentium FDIV menjadi kegagalan mahal untuk Intel yang membutuhkan penarikan produk karena Pentium asli tidak memiliki microcode patchable .
Bisnis BIOS

IBM menerbitkan seluruh daftar dari BIOS untuk PC aslinya , PC XT , PC AT , dan model PC kontemporer lainnya , dalam lampiran dari manual Referensi Teknis untuk masing-masing jenis mesin . Pengaruh publikasi daftar BIOS adalah bahwa setiap orang dapat melihat apa yang BIOS definitif dilakukan dan bagaimana melakukannya . Phoenix Technology adalah perusahaan pertama untuk menulis BIOS sepenuhnya kompatibel dan sepenuhnya legal melalui reverse engineering bersih-ruang .

Standar baru dicangkokkan ke BIOS biasanya tanpa dokumentasi publik lengkap atau daftar BIOS . Akibatnya , itu tidak mudah untuk mempelajari rincian intim tentang banyak tambahan non – IBM ke BIOS sebagai tentang layanan BIOS inti .

Kebanyakan pemasok motherboard PC lisensi BIOS ” inti ” dan toolkit dari pihak ketiga komersial , yang dikenal sebagai ” penjual BIOS independen” atau IBV . Para produsen motherboard kemudian menyesuaikan BIOS ini sesuai dengan hardware sendiri . Untuk alasan ini , BIOS diperbarui biasanya diperoleh langsung dari produsen motherboard . Vendor BIOS utama termasuk American Megatrends ( AMI ) , Insyde Software , Phoenix Technologies dan Byosoft . Mantan vendor termasuk Penghargaan Software dan Microid Penelitian yang diakuisisi oleh Phoenix Technologies pada tahun 1998 , Phoenix kemudian dihapus nama Brand Award .


film upin ipin

Upin dan Ipin adalah sebuah film animasi anak-anak yang dirilis pada 14 September 2007 di Malaysia dan disiarkan di TV9. Film ini diproduksi oleh Les’ Copaque. Awalnya film ini bertujuan untuk mendidik anak-anak agar lebih menghayati bulan Ramadan. Kini, Upin & Ipin sudah memiliki tiga musim tayang. Di Indonesia, Upin & Ipin hadir di MNCTV. Di Turki, Upin & Ipin disiarkan di Hilal TV. Film ini berdurasi 5-7 menit setiap episodenya. Kartun ini tayang setiap hari di TV9 pukul 16.30 dan di MNCTV tayang setiap hari pukul 16.30 WIB.

Atas keberhasilannya menarik hati penonton setempat, Upin & Ipin dinobatkan dalam Malaysia Book of Records sebagai “Animasi Paling Terkenal” pada tahun 2011.[1]


Pada awalnya Upin & Ipin termasuk sebagai gagasan dari film Geng: Pengembaraan Bermula, Upin & Ipin dibuat oleh Mohd. Nizam Abdul Razak, Mohd. Safwan Abdul Karim, dan Usamah Zaid, para pemilik Les’ Copaque. Ketiganya merupakan bekas mahasiswa dari Multimedia University Malaysia yang awalnya bekerja sebagai pekerja di sebuah organisasi animasi sebelum akhirnya bertemu dengan bekas pedagang minyak dan gas, Haji Burhanuddin Radzi dan istrinya bernama H. Ainon Ariff pada tahun 2005, lalu membuka organisasi Les’ Copaque.[2]

Awalnya, Upin & Ipin ditayangkan khusus untuk menyambut Ramadan pada tahun 2007 untuk mendidik anak-anak mengenai arti dan kepentingan dari bulan suci Ramadan. Kata Safwan, “Kami memulai seri animasi empat menit ini untuk menguji penerimaan pasar lokal serta mengukur bagaimana reaksi pada kemampuan penceritaan kami.”[3] Sambutan meriah terhadap kartun pendek ini mendorong Les’ Copaque agar menerbitkan satu musim lagi menyambut bulan Ramadan yang seterusnya.

Nizam percaya bahwa aspek kebudayaan Malaysia yang berlatarkan sebagai sebuah kampung yang sederhana pasti dapat menarik minat pasar internasional. Seperti pada kartun animasi Doraemon asal Jepang yang laris di seluruh dunia meskipun berlatarkan budaya setempat dan bukannya budaya internasional.[3] Dan lagi, reputasi Les’ Copaque sebagai organisasi terkenal mulai dibentuk oleh popularitas Upin & Ipin bukan saja di Malaysia, malah di beberapa negara lain yang meng-import kartun ini khususnya Indonesia.

Proses animasi Upin & Ipin (dan juga film Geng) menggunakan perangkat lunak CGI Autodesk Maya. [4] Di sebuah sidang media perangkat lunak animasi pada tahun 2009, Ketua Perancang Les’ Copaque, Fuad Md. Din memberitahukan, “Salah satu tujuan kami memilih kartun ini adalah karena proses pembuatannya cukup mudah. Lagipula kami sudah berpengalaman dalam membuatnya sebelum ini.”[5]

Pada tahun 2009, Nizam, Safwan, dan Anas meninggalkan Les’ Copaque untuk mendirikan sebuah studio animasi terbaru, yaitu Animonsta Studios, namun seri animasi Upin & Ipin masih tetap diteruskan di bawah pimpinan Haji Burhanuddin sebagai direktur.[6]


Upin dan Ipin merupakan sepasang kakak-beradik kembar berusia belia yang tinggal bersama Kak Ros dan Mak Uda (biasa dipanggil Opah) di Kampung Durian Runtuh setelah kematian kedua orangtua mereka sewaktu masih bayi. Upin dan Ipin bersekolah di Tadika Mesra yang terletak dalam kawasan kampung, di mana mereka berteman dengan banyak teman yang bermacam-macam tingkah lakunya, seperti Mei Mei yang imut dan berkepribadian cerdas, Jarjit Singh yang gemar membuat humor dan membuat pantun, Ehsan yang suka menyendiri, cerewet dan suka makan, Fizi (sepupu Ehsan) yang penuh keyakinan diri tetapi suka mengejek orang lain, dan Mail yang berkemampuan untuk berjualan, suka melamun dan mengantuk karena ia berjualan ayam semalam dan pandai berhitung.

Kampung Durian Runtuh dipimpin oleh Isnin bin Khamis yang lebih dikenal bernama Tok Dalang karena merupakan ahli wayang kulit. Tok Dalang memiliki sebuah pohon rambutan untuk tujuan komersial dan memelihara ayam jantan yang bernama Rembo. Penduduk lain yang dikenal ialah Muthu, pedagang makanan yang tinggal bersama anaknya Rajoo dan sapi peliharaannya yang bernama Sapy; Saleh, seorang transgender yang senang berkata kasar; dan Ah Tong, pengirim tanaman yang pandai berbicara. Kampung Durian Runtuh juga didatangi oleh seorang gadis bernama Susanti yang merupakan pindahan dari Jakarta, Indonesia.

Sejarah penyiaran

!Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Daftar episode Upin & Ipin


Penyiaran televisi

Negara Saluran Dimulai tanggal Keterangan
 Malaysia TV9 September 2007 Musim pertama hingga sekarang
Astro Ceria Agustus 2011 Musim pertama
 Indonesia TVRI September 2007 Musim pertama saja, bersamaan dengan Malaysia
MNC TV September 2008 Dari musim ke-2
 Singapura MediaCorp Suria Februari 2011 Dari musim ke-3
 Turki Hilal TV[7] September 2008 Musim pertama dan ke-2
 Hong Kong a
 Korea Selatanb
Disney Channel Asia November 2009 Dari musim ke-3

^a Hingga Maret 2010. Mulai April 2010, Disney Channel Hong Kong menggantikan Disney Channel Asia.
^b Hingga 30 Juni 2011. Mulai 1 Juli 2011, Disney Channel Korea menggantikan Disney Channel Asia.


Upin & Ipin dapat ditonton secara strim video di situs Internet berikut:


Bulan Disember 2009, Buku Komik Upin & Ipin diterbitkan sebulan sekali untuk pasar Malaysia, terbitan penerbit Nyla Sdn Bhd.[8] Isi halaman buku komik ini terdiri dari komik berasal dari tayangan kartun Upin & Ipin dan film Geng: Pengembaraan Bermula, profil pengisi suara dan kru di balik kartun Upin & Ipin, halaman pembelajaran dan aktivitas, dan sebagainya.

Media lain


Selain DVD, merek Upin & Ipin juga terjual dalam bentuk cenderamata[9], termasuk pakaian, perlengkapan sekolah, sampul angpao, gantungan kunci dan juga gambar seprai. Sayangnya, barang-barang Upin & Ipin tidak terlepas dari gejala pelanggaran hak cipta dan barang tiruan[10]; tetapi karena adanya penegak Kementerian Perdagangan Dalam Negeri Dan Urusan Penjualan Malaysia untuk memantau dan mengurangi kegiatan haram tersebut.[11]

Rekaman musik

Pada tahun 2011, Les’ Copaque dan perusahaan rekaman Nova Music menerbitkan album lagu Idul Fitri Seronoknya Raya Bersama Upin & Ipin yang menampilkan nyanyian Asyiela Putri Azhar sebagai pengisi suara Upin dan Ipin.[12] Pada pertengahan tahun 2012, Asyiela berduet bersama Najwa Latif untuk rekaman lagu “Terima Kasih Cikgu” untuk menyambut Hari Guru dan episode “Terima Kasih Cikgu”.


Pada bulan Desember 2009, Majalah Komik Upin & Ipin diterbitkan sebulan sekali untuk pemasaran seluruh Malaysia, diterbitkan oleh Nyla Sdn Bhd.[13] Isi konten majalah ini terdiri dari komik hasil pengambilan cuplikan serial Upin & Ipin dan film Geng: Pengembaraan Bermula, profil pengisi suara dan kru di balik serial Upin & Ipin, halaman pembelajaran dan aktivitas, dan sebagainya.

Permainan video dan aplikasi

Les’ Copaque Production membuka sebuah bagian pembangunan permainan, LC Game Develpment Inc. Sdn Bhd untuk mengeluarkan permainan elektronik Upin & Ipin. LC Game Development Inc. telah menghasilkan dua permainan mini untuk pengguna iOS, yaitu Pocket Ipin (2010), Pocket Upin (2012) dan Upin & Ipin Dash (2012).

Pada sekitar Maret 2011, dilaporkan bahawa Les’ Copaque sedang membuat permainan komputer Upin & Ipin.[14] Pada Oktober tahun yang sama, diumumkan pula bahwa dua permainan Upin & Ipin yang berasingan sedang dibuat.[15]


Pementasan teater Upin & Ipin the Musical yang menggunakan layanan pelakon hidup dianjurkan buat julung kalinya pada 14 April hingga 6 Mei 2012 di Istana Budaya.[16] Dalam pementasan ini, karakter Upin dan Ipin diperankan oleh dua pasangan pelakon yang berbeda, yaitu Faris Azim Abdul Karim dan Amir Johar Nadim, Joshry Adamme Rizq Arish Khairul Fazril dan Muhamad Faritz Danial Roshaimi.

Sambutan dan pengaruh

Kartun Upin & Ipin berpengaruh di negeri Nusantara, khususnya di Malaysia dan Indonesia. Musim pertamanya yang diperkenalkan kepada khalayak umum sewaktu musim Ramadan 2007 bukan saja disambut hangat oleh penonton, bahkan juga memberikan penghargaan pertamanya sebagai “Animasi Terbaik” di Festival Film Internasional Kuala Lumpur yang ditargetkan pada tahun yang sama.[17]

Ketika musim keduanya disiarkan pada musim Ramadan 2008, dilaporkan sejumlah 1.5 juta penonton menonton kartun animasi ini di TV9[18], menjadikannya seri kartun kedua penonton terbanyak di dunia pertelevisian Malaysia setelah Doraemon (1.6 juta orang), tetapi di atas kartun SpongeBob SquarePants (800,000 orang).[2] Kelarisan kartun Upin & Ipin juga dipercayai menjadi penyebab kepada kejayaan film animasi CGI pertama Malaysia, Geng: Pengembaraan Bermula (2009) yang juga diterbitkan oleh Les’ Copaque dan menampilkan karakter Upin dan Ipin, yang mencapai pendapatan kotor yang cemerlang yaitu RM 6.31 juta selama tujuh minggu di bioskop, menjadikannya film yang paling spektakuler dalam sejarah perfilman Malaysia.[2]

Ketika musim ketiga disiarkan pada musim libur sekolah akhir tahun 2009, pihak TV9 melaporkan bahawa kartun Upin & Ipin mencatat 1.6 juta penonton, menjadikannya rancangan kedua penonton terbanyak di saluran tersebut, mengalahkan tak lain tak bukan adlaah film Geng yang menikmati tayangan perdana di stasiun televisi dengan 2.45 juta penonton (TVR 12.8).[19]

Indonesia menjadi pasaran ekspor utama untuk seri kartun Upin & Ipin. Pada tahun 2009, pihak TPI selaku penyiarnya di republik melaporkan TVR sebanyak 10.5 persen.[20] Penggarapan Upin & Ipin di Indonesia ditandai oleh puji-pujian dari kritikus di Indonesia, misalnya Fadil Abidin untuk analisis akhbar yang mengulas bahwa kartun ini mengandung pendidikan serta unsur Islam, seperti menghormati sesama kawan yang berbeda kaum dan agama sehingga watak-wataknya bukan saja terdiri dari orang Melayu, Cina dan Tamil, bahkan juga orang Indonesia.[21]

Bahkan untuk sambutan perayaan Hindu Nyepi di Bali pada Maret 2010, tersiar kabar tentang gambar patung ogoh-ogoh yang dilaporkan amat menyerupai Upin & Ipin. Pembuatan ogoh-ogoh berupa Upin dan Ipin ini dilaporkan menelan biaya 4 juta rupiah[22]


musik indo jamrud

Jamrud adalah band cadas yang berasal dari Indonesia, pertama kali terbentuk pada tahun 1989 di Cimahi, Jawa Barat dengan nama Jamrock. Jamrud sejak terbentuknya didepani oleh ‘Azis’ Mangasi Siagian (gitar) dan ‘Ricky’ Teddy (bass) serta dikenal sebagai grup musik yang sukses mengusung musik cadas sebagai musik populer di Indonesia pada tahun ’90-an.

Latar belakang

Sebelum menjadi Jamrud, formasi awal Jamrock terdiri dari ‘Azis’ Mangasi Siagian (gitar), ‘Ricky’ Teddy (bass), Agus (drum), dan Oppi (vokal), selain mereka, Budhy Haryono pentolan Gigi Band juga pernah menjadi anggota band ini. Grup ini beberapa kali mengalami pergantian personel, Budhy Haryono, mantan pemain drum GIGI juga pernah bergabung dengan Jamrock. Formasi Jamrock akhirnya terbentuk menjadi yang populer dikenal oleh penggemarnya tahun ’90-an yaitu Azis (gitar), Ricky Teddy (bass), Krisyanto (vokal), ‘Fitrah’ Alamsyah (gitar), dan ‘Sandy’ Handoko (drum).

Proses menjadi Jamrud

Jamrock menjadi grup musik yang mengusung musik ROCK yang disegani di seputar daerah Bandung. Saat itu mereka kebanyakan menampilkan lagu-lagu dari grup-grup musik cadas lain yang telah mempunyai nama. Pamor mereka semakin meningkat saat Krisyanto, Fitrah Alamsyah (gitar) dan Sandy Handoko (drum) bergabung dengan Jamrock. Krisyanto sendiri pernah meraih predikat sebagai Vokalis Rock Terbaik versi festival rock se-Bandung.

Puas mengusung lagu-lagu milik orang lain, tahun 1995, Azis, Ricky, Krisyanto, Fitrah dan Sandy mulai menulis materi lagu mereka sendiri dan merekam demo mereka. Mereka menawarkan demo tersebut ke label rekaman Log Zhelebour (biasa disebut ‘Log’) yang memberi sambutan hangat. Jamrock kemudian mendapat kontrak untuk rekaman dan bergabung dengan label rekaman milik Log, yaitu Logiss Records. Dengan masuknya mereka ke dalam label rekaman milik Log, nama Jamrock diubah menjadi Jamrud.


Jamrud menjadi matang secara musik dan penampilan di bawah asuhan label rekaman milik Log Zhelebour tersebut. Penjualan album perdana Jamrud, Nekad (1996), meraih angka penjualan sebanyak 150 ribu keping dalam waktu singkat. Kesuksesan mereka dilanjutkan dengan album kedua mereka, Putri (1997), yang angka penjualannya mencapai 250 ribu keping. Keuntungan besar dari hasil penjualan album-album Jamrud terus berlanjut hingga mereka merilis Terima Kasih (1998). Album tersebut sangat populer di kalangan generasi muda Indonesia saat itu, terutama lewat lagu “Berakit-rakit” dan “Terima Kasih“, sehingga terjual hingga menyentuh angka 750 ribu keping, prestasi yang sangat luar biasa untuk penjualan album musik cadas di Indonesia saat itu.mereka juga mendapat anugerah penghargaan sebagai Group Rock Terbaik AMI Award 1999.

Puncak kesuksesan komersial Jamrud adalah album Ningrat (2000) yang mencatat angka penjualan sebanyak dua juta keping di Indonesia dengan populernya single “Surti-Tejo” dan “Pelangi di Matamu” di Indonesia. Album Ningrat mencatat sejarah dengan meraih anugerah 5 penghargaan AMI Award 2000 sungguh luar biasa untuk sebuah group cadas.

Kesuksesan album Ningrat membuat Log Zhelebour membawa “Jamrud” rekaman di Studio 301 Sydney, Australia dan merilis album “Sydney 090102” (2002) dengan mencatat penjualan yang cukup spektakuler sebanyak hampir satu juta keping dengan lagu hits “Waktuku Mandi” dan ” Selamat Ulang Tahun” yang sampai saat ini masih populer dan dinyanyikan setiap orang merayakan hari ulang tahun. Album ini meraih anugerah penghargaan sebagai Group Rock Terbaik AMI Award 2002 dan Gen-B 2002, Jamrud masih merajai industri rekaman dan showbiz dengan honor termahal.

Kesuksesan yang mereka raih tak lepas dari sebuah kejadian yang tak terduga. Pada agustus 1999,Fitrah Alamsyah meninggal karena overdosis obat-obatan terlarang Disusul Sandy Handoko yang Meninggal pada Mei 2000.Berita kematian mereka menggemparkan industri musik Indonesia pada masa tersebut. Posisi Sandy Handoko kemudian digantikan oleh Suherman ‘Herman’ Husin.Sementara Fitrah Alamsyah Pada Formasi Itu Tidak Digantikan oleh siapapun.Karena,sebelum Kematiannya,dia berpesan “‘ “Jika Aku Mati,Kalian Tidak Boleh Menggantikan Aku (Dalam 1 Formasi)” “‘ .Jadi,Selama Drum Dipegang Oleh Suherman Husin,Tidak ada Yang Menggantikan Fitrah Alamsyah.


Setelah Jamrud merilis Tujuh buah album, pada tahun 2007 Krisyanto mengundurkan diri dari Jamrud dengan alasan sudah jenuh dan lelah dengan aktivitas bermusiknya di grup musik tersebut. Krisyanto kemudian merilis album solo pertamanyae berjudul Mimpi (2009).

22 Maret 2011, gitaris Azis MS mengungkapkan kepada Rolling Stone Indonesia bahwa hengkangnya Krisyanto antara lain disebabkan oleh keputusasaannya lantaran penjualan album Jamrud yang merosot, bukan karena kejenuhan. “Kalau setelah keluar terus dia tidak beraktivitas di musik lagi, seperti yang dia katakan, itu memang berarti dia ingin break di dunia musik. Tapi kalau ini, sekian bulan langsung mengeluarkan album, berarti mau mencari income yang lebih. Cuma yang jelas kalau satu anggota band keluar dan dia membentuk lagi, berarti ada ketidakpuasan di band sebelumnya. Itu saja,” kata Azis.

“Padahal pada saat itu aku berpikir, tinggal tunggu saja. Sambil kami juga, istilahnya, break-lah, istirahat selama dua sampai tiga tahun, karena kami juga sudah tur setiap tahunnya ke ratusan kota. Istilahnya kami juga bagi-bagi rezekilah ke band lain. Kan nggak ada salahnya. Sambil menunggu toh nggak akan sampai kelaparan. Hanya saja mungkin pemikiran dia berbeda. Makanya mungkin dia ingin mendulang emas lebih banyak,” lanjut Azis.

Formasi baru

Setelah keluarnya Krisyanto, Jamrud langsung bergerak merekrut personel baru. Tiga personel baru ditambah ke dalam band mereka. Mereka adalah Jaja Donald Amdonal (vokal) yang menggantikan Krisyanto, Mochamad ‘Irwan’ (Gitar 2) dan ‘Danny’ Rachman (drum) yang menggantikan Suherman. Dengan formasi ini Jamrud merilis album terbaru bertajuk New Performance 2009 yang dirilis di CiToS Jakarta tanggal 16 Maret 2009. Jamrud berencana akan merilis sebuah album kompilasi sebelum melakukan Tour pada akhir tahun 2009.

Konsep baru album Jamrud

JAMRUD sudah bertekad mengubah image agar Jamers tidak lagi membandingkan Jamrud era Krisyanto dengan era Jamrud yang sekarang, perubahan memang sangat mencolok dari konsep musik atau lagunya dan logo Jamrud pun lebih metal.

Log memberi judul Album Bumi & Langit (istilah album era lama & baru seperti bumi dan langit) ditambah Menangis karena pasti ada yang bersedih terutama pecinta Jamrud fanatik (Jamrud era Kris). Jamrud berubah secara keseluruhan dengan risiko ditinggalkan Jamers lama atau bahkan meraih tambahan dukungan Jamers baru yang masih muda dan juga yang lama karena perubahan konsep musiknya. Yang jelas album barunya yang akan dirilis 19 Maret 2011 secara musikalitas jauh lebih bagus dari album lamanya tapi apakah Jamers sudah siap menghadapi perubahan itu? tapi menurut analisis Log Zhelebour sebagai executive producer, bahwa Jamrud sudah mencapai titik puncak karier sebagai group band rock paling sukses sejak tahun 1996 sampai dengan 2006 sehingga sudah tidak ada lagi yang ingin dicapai atau dikejar lagi. Dengan berubah secara total maka Jamrud jadi punya tantangan baru yang harus dihadapi, baik dari hasil karyanya maupun menghadapi tuntutan pasar anak muda sekarang yang menginginkan Jamrud tidak sekadar jualan lirik yang bagus tapi juga secara musikalitas harus lebih bagus lagi.

Album Rock Terlaris Sepanjang Sejarah

Menilik penjualan album Jamrud memang paling fenomenal di antara group rock lainnya dan Jamrud sudah melakukan tour show besar-besaran di seratus kota lebih dengan nilai kontrak show 100-150 juta per show (hanya fee). Kalau mau melanjutkan formasi lamanya pun tidak akan bisa bertahan karena orang sudah jenuh melihat performance Jamrud karena sudah beberapa kali melakukan tour show sejak tahun 1999 s.d. 2006.

Pada saat itulah eksistensi Jamrud sebagai grup rock nomor satu dikukuhkan melalui rekaman-rekamannya yang berhasil mengatasi produk serupa lainnya. Album-album Jamrud seperti Nekad (1996) yang terjual 150.000 kaset dan CD, Putri (1997, 300.000 kaset/CD),Terima Kasih (1999, 800.000 kaset dan CD) dan ” Ningrat ” (2000, terjual 2.000.000 kaset dan CD ) sehingga meraih penghargaan 5 kategori AMI Award 2001 bahkan membawa mereka bersama Log Zhelebour tentunya melakukan tour tunggal di 120 kota yang di sponsori Djarum, diundang tampil di Jepang dan Korea serta melakukan rekaman di Australia dan melahirkan Album ” Sydney 0901022002, terjual 1.000.000 kaset/CD.

Sedangkan Azis M. S. dan Ricky Teddy tetap ingin bertahan di Jamrud dengan merekrut musisi muda seperti Danny pada drum, Irwan di gitar, Donal pada vokal dan merilis album adaptasi Jamrud New Performance dan Best Of The Best. Bahkan untuk mendukung perubahan musik Jamrud yang lebih ganas dan penuh energi pada album barunya merekrut Iwan Vox sebagai vokalis pendamping Donal. Pada April 2011 Iwan Vox mengundurkan diri dari Jamrud. Begitu juga dengan Donal yang mulai mengundurkan diri pada bulan Maret 2012 untuk bergabung dengan band dengan komunitas yang sama dan membuat band baru yang pastinya di Jakarta, seperti yang dikutip detik.com: “Aku masih akan di komunitas yang sama. Aku masih tetap akan berteman dengan mereka. Aku juga berencana pengen punya band baru. Kita saling mendukung…

Bergabung kembali

Pada September 2011, Krisyanto menyatakan secara resmi kembali ke Jamrud mulai bulan Oktober 2011. Kehadiran Krisyanto ditandai dengan perubahan pada album terbaru mereka yang berjudul Bumi dan Langit Menangis dirilis kembali dengan judul baru ENERGI + DARI BUMI DAN LANGIT. Dalam album ini ada satu lagu tambahan berjudul “Ciiaat”. Beberapa lagu andalan dalam album ini juga dibuat ulang video klipnya seperti lagu “SHIT”, “Sik Sik Sibatumanikkam” dan “Cerita Usang”. Padahal, Maret 2012 lalu, Donal mengundurkan diri dari band ini, untuk bergabung ke band baru dengan komunitas yang sama yang jauh lebih nge-rock dari band ini.

Merilis Album ” Saatnya Menang “

Pada Desember 2012, Jamrud dengan formasi Krisyanto sebagai vokalis utama merilis album “Saatnya Menang”. dan 11 lagu yang ada di album ini dibuatkan video klip oleh Log Zhelebour, diantaranya lagu yang diprediksi akan Hits “”Ajari Aku””, “”Kau Jahanam, Aku Bajingan””, Genggam Tanganku””, dan “Ingin Kembali””. Jamrud dalam waktu dekat akan merilis DVD Karaoke pada bulan september 2013 yang berisi 15 video klip.

Tour Jamrud Bersama Skid Row

Jamrud pada bulan Oktober 2013 akan melakukan tour show di 6 kota bersama group band ” Skid Row ” dari USA di Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Malang dan Surabaya yang diselenggarakan oleh Log Zhelebour Production yang juga produser dan pimpinan Jamrud management.


Album studio 
Album kompilasi 

Formasi dan personel

Mantan personel

Video klip musik dan singel

  • Nekad (1995): “Nekad“, “Ayam“,”Rasa Cinta Padamu” (Live)
  • Putri (1997): “Putri“, “Maaf“, “Cerita Jalanan” (Live)
  • Terima Kasih (1998): “Terima Kasih“, “Dokter Suster“, “Berakit-rakit“, “Otak Kotor“, “Kurang Piknik“, “Trouble Shanty” (Live)
  • Ningrat (2000): “Ningrat“, “Kabari Aku“, “Asal British“, “Surti-Tejo“, “Pelangi di Matamu“, “Jauh (Andaikan…)
  • Sydney 090102 (2002): “Waktuku Mandi“,”Naksir Abis“,”Selamat Ulang Tahun“,”Kau Dan Ibumu“,”Telat 3 Bulan“,”Hallo Penjahat
  • All The Best Slow Hits (2003) : “Mengejar Nirwana
  • BO 18+ (2004): “Senandung Raja Singa“, “Anjink“, “Setan 666”, “Anti Sosial“, “Cinta Adalah
  • All Access In Love (2006): “Lelaki Biadab“, “Ajari Aku Cara Mencintaimu“, “Untuk Ibu“,”Hapus Saja Nomerku“, “Viva Jammers“, “Shut Up & Listen
  • New Performance 2009 (2009): “Ingin Kembali
  • Best Of The Best (2010): “Putri“,”Berakit Rakit“,”Kabari Aku'”,”Nekad“,”Pelangi Di Matamu“,”Terima Kasih'”,”Dokter Suster'”,”Selamat Ulang Tahun
  • Bumi & Langit Menangis (2011): “Sik Sik Sibatumanikam“, “Cerita Usang
  • Energi + Dari Bumi & Langit (2012): “S.H.I.T“, “Cerita Usang“, “Sik Sik Sibatumanikan“, “Ciaat
  • Saatnya Menang (2013): “Ajari Aku“, “Genggam Tanganku“, “Ingin Kembali“, “Setan Manisku“, “Ancur“, “Kau Jahanam, Aku Bajingan “, “Saatnya Menang“, “The Metal Show“, “Datang Sikat Kabur“, “Apa Masih Belum Cukup Uangmu “, “Most Wanted“.

Prestasi Jamrud

  • Group Rock Terbaik AMI Award 1999
  • Group Rock Terbaik AMI Award 2000
  • Album Rock Terbaik AMI Award 2001
  • Penyanyi Rock Terbaik AMI Award 2001
  • Produser Album Rock Terbaik AMI Award 2001
  • Lagu Rock Terbaik AMI Award 2001
  • Album Terlaris AMI Award 2001
  • Group Rock Terbaik AMI Award 2002
  • Group Rock Terbaik News Musik 2002
  • Group Rock Terbaik Tabloid Bintang 2002
  • Group Terpopuler Gen B Extra Joss Award 2002

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